Anti-Semitism in the West from Constantine Essay

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Anti-Semitism is defined as prejudice or discrimination against, and persecution of, the Jews as an ethnic group. Historically, this has been practiced for many different reasons, by the ancient Egyptians before the Exodus, under the Babylonian Captivity in 586 B. C. E. and for almost 2,000 years by European Christians. Anti-Semitism was a tenet of Nazi Germany, and in the Holocaust (Hebrew Shoah) 1933-1945 about 6 million Jews died in concentration camps and in local extermination pogroms, such as the siege of the Warsaw ghetto.

In Eastern Europe, as well as in Islamic nations, anti-Semitism exists and is promoted by neo-fascist groups. It is a form of racism. 1 Although, anti-Semitism can be historically proven to cover over 2,500 years, only the time from Constantine to the Crusades to the expulsion of Jews from Spain will be discussed. In 306 C. E. , Constantine became the first Christian Roman Emperor. At first, he accorded Jews the same religious rights as Christians. However, about 312 C. E. , he made Christianity the official religion of the Empire.

This signaled the end of the persecution of Christians, but the beginning of the persecution of the Jewish people. With the establishment of Christianity as the state religion in the 4th century, the Church soon began to attack Judaism. The new Christian empire began to enact legal changes such as: The removal of former religious and governing privileges. The curtailment of rabbinical jurisdiction and the prohibition of missionary work. Jews were no longer allowed to hold high offices or have military careers (e. g. legislation in 537 C. E. which prohibited local Jewish people from serving on municipal bodies).

Banning Christians from having contact with Jews. Forbidding of the reading of the Torah exclusively in Hebrew (553 C. E. ). Confiscation of Jewish property and the prohibition of the sale of Christian property to Jews (545 C. E. ). The Justinian Code was an edict of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian (527-564). A section of the code negated civil rights for Jews. Once the code was enforced, Jews in the Empire could not build synagogues, read the Bible in Hebrew, gather in public places, celebrate Passover before Easter, or give evidence in a judicial case in which a Christian was a party.

Other decrees by the early Catholic Church: Synod of Elvira (306) prohibited intermarriage and sexual intercourse between Christians and Jews, and prohibited them from eating together. Councils of Orleans (533-541) prohibited marriages between Christians and Jews and forbade the conversion to Judaism by Christians. Trulanic Synod (692) prohibited Christians from being treated by Jewish doctors. Synod of Narbonne (1050) prohibited Christians from living in Jewish homes. Synod of Gerona (1078) required Jews to pay taxes to support the Church.

Third Lateran Council (1179) prohibited certain medical care to be provided by Christians to Jews. Fourth Lateran Council (1215) required Jews to wear special clothing to distinguish them from Christians. Council of Basel (1431-1443) forbade Jews to attend universities, from acting as agents in the conclusion of contracts between Christians, and required that they attend church sermons. After 312, the writings of the Church Fathers changed in character. No longer were they on the defensive and apologetic, but aggressive, and directed its venom at everyone outside of the flock, in particular the Jewish people.

The war of the Christian Church against the Jews began with the Church Fathers relentless attacks on those Jews who stubbornly refused to accept Jesus as Messiah. The unbridled utterances of bigotry and hate coming from the venerated Church Fathers of the early Christian Church raises some doubt as to both their sanity and their saintliness. 2 Despite their belief that Christs death was necessary and predestined, they denounced the Jews as a condemned race and hated of God.

3 Because of the growing power of the Church, Christian theology and the Church Fathers were to become more and more obsessed with Jewish guilt. The following teachings of the Fathers were to be handed down throughout succeeding generations in Christendom. Origen (185-254 C. E. ) echoed the growing hostility: On account of their unbelief and other insults which they heaped upon Jesus, the Jews will not only suffer more than others in the judgment which is believed to impend over the world, but have even already endured such sufferings.

For what nation is in exile from their own metropolis, and from the place sacred to the worship of their fathers, save the Jews alone? And the calamities they have suffered because they were a most wicked nation, which although guilty of many other sins, yet has been punished so severely for none as for those that were committed against our Jesus. 4 The Church, who was now Israel, had to discredit the other Israel. And it did so by making anti-Jewish theology an integral part of Christian apologetics.

The Fathers turned out volumes of literature to prove that they were the true people of God, and that Judaism had only been a prelude to or in preparation for Christianity. Justin Martyr along with Hippolytus (170-236 C. E. ) was obsessed with the belief that the Jews were receiving and would continue to receive Gods punishment for having murdered Jesus. Hippolytus writes: Now then, incline thine ear to me and hear my words, and give heed, thou Jew. Many a time does thou boast thyself, in that thou didst condemn Jesus of Nazareth to death, and didst give him vinegar and gall to drink; and thou dost vaunt thyself because of this.

Come, therefore, and let us consider together whether perchance thou dost boast unrighteously, O, Israel, and whether thou small portion of vinegar and gall has not brought down this fearful threatening upon thee and whether this is not the cause of thy present condition involved in these myriad of troubles. 5 As the Church came into power in the fourth century, it turned on the synagogues with even greater intensity. Jewish civil and religious status was deteriorating, thanks to the influence the bishops had in the political arena.

Laws were passed making it a capital offense for any Jew to make a convert, they were excluded from various professions, denied all civil honors, and their autonomy of worship was being threatened. In every way, they were being discriminated against. Christians felt that this growing evidence now supported their belief in divine punishment. Hilary of Potieres spoke of the Jews as a people who had always persisted in iniquity and out of its abundance of evil glorified in wickedness. 6 Ambrose defended a fellow bishop for burning a synagogue at Callinicum and asked, who cares if a synagogue home of insanity and unbelief is destroyed?

7 Gregory of Nyssa (331-396 C. E. ) gave the following indictment: Slayers of the Lord, murderers of the prophets, adversaries of God, men who show contempt for the Law, foes of grace, enemies of their fathers faith, advocates of the Devil, brood of vipers, slanderers, scoffers, men whose minds are in darkness, leaven of the Pharisees, assembly of demons, sinners, wicked men, stoners, and haters of righteousness. 8 The strongest attacks on Jews and Judaism by the Church Fathers are to be found in the Homilies of Chrysostom (344-407 C. E. ) in his Antioch sermons.

He is considered to be among the most beloved and admired in Church history. His name translates in Greek as St. John the Golden Mouthed. His discourses were prompted by the fact that many Christians were meeting on friendly terms with Jews, visiting Jewish homes, and attending their synagogues. Chrysostom said: The Jews sacrifice their children to Satan¦. they are worse than wild beasts. The synagogue is a brothel, a den of scoundrels, the temple of demons devoted to idolatrous cults, a criminal assembly of Jews, a place of meeting for the assassins of Christ, a house of ill fame, a dwelling of iniquity, a gulf and abyss of perdition.

9 The Jews have fallen into a condition lower than the vilest animal. Debauchery and drunkenness have brought them to the level of the lusty goat and the pig. They know only one thing: to satisfy their stomachs, to get drunk, to kill, and beat each other up like stage villains and coachmen. 10 The synagogue is a curse, obstinate in her error, she refuses to see or hear, she has deliberately perverted her judgment; she has extinguished with herself the light of the Holy Spirit. 11

Chrysostom further said that the Jews had become a degenerate race because of their odious assassination of Christ for which crime there is no expiation possible, no indulgence, no pardon, and for which they will always be a people without a nation, enduring a servitude without end. 12 He elaborated further on Gods punishment of the Jews: But it was men, says the Jew, who brought these misfortunes upon us, not God. On the contrary, it was in fact God who brought them about. If you attribute them to men, reflect again that even supposing men had dared, they could not have had the power to accomplish them, unless it had been Gods will¦

Men would certainly not have made war unless God had permitted them¦ Is it not obvious that it was because God hated you and rejected you once for all? 13 On another occasion Chrysostom is quoted as saying I hate the Jews because they violate the Law. I hate the synagogue because it has the Law and the prophets. It is the duty of all Christians to hate the Jews. 14 Chrysostoms Homilies were to be used in seminaries and schools for centuries as model sermons, with the result that his message of hate would be passed down to succeeding generations of theologians.

Augustine, the great theologian, was also guilty of the growing hatred. In a sermon on Catechumens, he says: The Jews hold him, the Jews insult him, the Jews bind him, crown him with thorns, dishonor him with spitting, scourge him, overwhelm with revilings, hang him upon the tree, pierce him with a spear¦ The Jews killed him. 15 But when the Jews killed Christ, though they knew it not, they prepared the supper for us. 16 In another sermon he characterized the Jews as willfully blind to Holy Scripture, lacking in understanding and haters of truth.

17 The Church Fathers had sown the seeds of intolerance and Jews were to become the object of hatred and persecution all over Europe for centuries to come. In 1096 Urban II, needed a unifying cause and called for a Crusade or Holy War against the Muslims in the Holy Land who were persecuting Christians and desecrating the holy places and Jerusalem. In the summer of 1096, an undisciplined rabble of 200,000 peasants and artisans had assembled in France. The champions of the cross turned their attention to the Jews, who, in their eyes, were just as much infidels and enemies of Christianity as the Muslims.

They found they could commence the Crusade on the spot. Cruelty, instead of charity, began at home. As the Crusaders marched through Europe on their way to the Hold Land, they literally raped, pillaged, and plundered. Faced with the wild cries of the Crusaders, The Jews crucified our Savior, and they must return to Him or die, the Jews had the alternative of baptism or death. Thousands preferred the death of martyrs. While the Church did not officially sanction this activity, it nevertheless took place. Many local clergymen and bishops gave the Jews protection and refuge from the rabbles.

Unfortunately, others actually participated in the executions. One example, at Mayence, the Archbishop invited 1,300 Jews into his palace for refuge. This proved to be an invitation to slaughter, for under his supervision, they were all killed, and he even shared in the spoils confiscated from the corpses. Incidentally, Emperor Henry IV heard of this massacre, confiscated the property of the Archbishop, and permitted the Jews who had been forcibly baptized to return to Judaism. When the Crusaders finally arrived in Jerusalem, they were 600,000strong. They besieged the city and on July 15, 1099 broke through the walls.

They killed the Moslems in the city and herded the Jews into the synagogue. Crusaders with shields decorated with large crosses placed wood around the synagogue and burned alive all inside as they sang, Christ, We Adore Thee! Is it any wonder that the cross is a symbol of hatred and death for the Jewish people, not love, reconciliation, and salvation? The cross has literally been taken and used as a sword against the Jewish people. In all, there were nine Crusades and they were finished in 1291 when the Muslims once again took possession of the Holy Land. In 1215, the Fourth Lateran Council was held.

During their council, the doctrine of Transubstantiation was crystallized. Transubstantiation is the doctrine of the flesh and blood of Christ become present in the consecrated host and wine. This doctrine is still prevalent today in the Catholic Church. The result of this doctrine ultimately became a new source of Christian anti-Semitism. For centuries to follow, accusations of host desecration by Jews were circulated. The host desecration libel is that the Jewish people would try to steal a consecrated host and then stab, torment, and burn it in an effort to recrucify Christ.

Many illustrated stories showing this fabricated phenomenon were circulated during the 1400s and 1500s. An offshoot of the host desecration libel is the blood libel. The blood libel contends that Jews murder non-Jews, particularly Christians, in order to obtain blood for the Passover or other rituals. It was also purported that Jews needed to drink Christian blood so that their appearance could remain human looking, and Christian blood would also help eliminate the distinctive (foetor judaicus) Jewish smell, which was converse to the odor of sanctity possessed by Christians.

Anyone possessing knowledge of Jewish dietary laws would know that Jewish people are forbidden to eat blood, if it were not already obvious that these accusations are completely ludicrous. Unfortunately, it shows the complete ignorance of Jewish lifestyle, and lack of Christian-Jewish relations, prevalent in that day. Another canon promulgated by the Fourth Lateran Council required Jews to wear a distinguishing mark. The form of the mark varied in different countries, but usually took the form of a badge, or a three-cornered or pointed hat. In this way, you could be sure not to inadvertently come into contact with Jewish people.

Even in Medieval art Jews were depicted with a circle on their clothing or pointed hats. The charges of host desecration, blood libel and segregation provoked a series of pogroms. Boppard in 1179, Vienna in 1181, Speier in 1185, Halle in 1205, Erfurt in 1221, Mecklenburg in 1225, Fulda in 1236, Frankfurt in 1241, Beelitz in 1243, Pforzheim in 1244, Paris in 1270, Wurzburg and Nuremberg in 1298, Alsace, Swabia, and Franconia in 1336, Bavaria, Bohemia and Moravia in 1337. German and Germanized places were prominent in the killing of Jews. England did not escape the scourge.

In 1189, during the coronation of King Richard the Lion-Hearted, though Jews were forbidden to attend the festivities, a few managed to get in, but were brutally driven out. This provoked a riot among the crowd watching at the gates. Soon there was a rumor that the king had ordered a general slaughter of Jews. The people attacked the London Jewry, set fires to houses and synagogues, and killed a number of Jews. The next year there were further outbreaks of violence, the worst being at York. The Jews took refuge in the local castle, called Cliffords tower, where they were besieged.

On the advice of their leader, a prominent rabbi, the men killed their wives and daughters and then slew each other. When the besiegers managed at last to enter the castle, they massacred the few who were left. The next historical event to blemish world history is the infamous Inquisition. According to Canon Law, the Inquisition was not authorized to interfere in the internal affairs of the Jews, but to seek out Christian heretics who had backslidden. However, this law was rescinded on the ground that the presence of Jews causes heresy to develop in the Christian communities.

In the mid-1400s, the Spanish Inquisition had its beginnings. In Spain, tens of thousands of Jews had been forced to be baptized. Because of this, they were considered Christians and expected to behave as Christians. These baptized Jews were known as Converos or New Christians. If a mouse is caught in a cookie jar, this does not make him a cookie. So, too, force-baptizing anyone does not make him a Christian. These Converos were thus still practicing many Jewish customs, such as lighting candles on Friday evening, changing the linen on the Sabbath, abstaining from pork and scale less fish, observing the Feast Days, etc.

To be caught practicing any one of 37 customs was grounds to be brought before the Inquisition court. Christians were to watch for these signs and report any such backsliders. Once before the court, there was no way out of punishment: If you confessed and did not repent, you were burned alive. If you confessed and repented, you were publicly humiliated. Any subsequent slip-ups resulted in certain death. If you did not confess, even if you were innocent, you were tortured until you confessed and then burned. The Church was not allowed to execute the victim, so they passed them to a secular arm of the Inquisition Court.

Blood was not allowed to be shed, thus the burning. This they justified by a text from John 15:6, If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered, and men gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned. Incidentally, all property was confiscated, enriching the Inquisition Court. Practicing Jews (not Converos) were ultimately brought to the Inquisition Courts, as it was believed that they were Judaisers, and a bad influence on the Converos. They too were tried and burned. The Inquisition in Spain lasted from 1481 1820.

Over 350,000 Jews suffered punishment. The tensions between Christians and Jews that were a feature of European life were also present in the Iberian Peninsula. They were however tempered by a measure of convivencia in a land where Christian, Muslim and Jew dwelt side by side. Thus there were no anti-Jewish riots in Castile during the Black Death, although such riots did occur in the Crown of Aragon, which was more open to the currents of mainstream European anti-Semitism. From the mid-fourteenth century, however, convivencia began to break down in the face of an increasing exclusivity.

In the late 1370s Ferrant Martinez, the archdeacon of Ecija, began a campaign against the Jews, which culminated in a wave of massacres throughout Castile and the Crown of Aragon during the summer of 1391. Many Jews were killed; many submitted to baptism to save their lives. Although the Church in theory frowned upon forced conversion, conversos were nevertheless considered to be technically Christians and were prohibited from returning to Judaism. Thus converso communities sprang up alongside decimated Jewish ones or, as in the case of Barcelona, supplanted the Jewish community altogether.

Henceforth Jewish life would tend to shift from the large towns to smaller rural centers. If forced conversion was meant to solve ? the Jewish problem, it only compounded it in Christian eyes. The sincerity of converso faith was inevitably questioned and all the more fiercely by ? Old Christians who saw former Jews successfully scaling the social, economic and political barriers that, as Jews, they had previously found insurmountable. Accordingly in the anti-converso uprising in Toledo in 1449 ? statutes were drafted by the Toledan Old Christians, which prohibited conversos from holding all offices and benefices.

Anti-converso violence, which surfaced again in Toledo in 1467, was particularly acute in the massacres that were perpetrated in many Andalusian towns in 1473. The existence of the converso communities led to greater pressure on the Jews, for they were perceived as the cause of continuing crypto-Judaism amongst conversos. To combat this, segregatory laws were promulgated in 1412 designed ? to seek the best method¦ so that Christian believers¦ shall not be brought into any errors as a result of close contact with the infidels. In 1415, after the Disputation at Tortosa, similar decrees were enacted in Aragon.

Christian zealots, however, were not satisfied with segregation and the limiting of Jewish rights. Two courses of action, it was argued, were required. First, crypto-Judaism could only be overcome by the introduction of an Inquisition; second, Jewish influence over the conversos could only be overcome by their expulsion. These ideas, adumbrated in works such as Alonso de Espinas Fortalitium Fidei, continued to gain ground, and on 27 September 1480 the Catholic Monarchs appointed Inquisitors in Castile who began their work in Seville shortly after (1481).

Conversos, often subjected to torture, were discovered to be crypto-Jews and received varying punishments, ranging from pilgrimage to death by burning. During the first decade of the Inquisitions operations over 10,000 conversos were condemned. The expulsion of the Jews was authorized on 31 March 1492, in May those Jews who refused to convert left for Portugal, North Africa and Turkey. Those who fled to Portugal only found temporary refuge, for five years later they again faced the problem of forcible conversion. As in Spain, this led to the rise of crypto-Judaism, and on 23 May 1536 an Inquisition was set up on the Spanish model.

With the expulsion of the Jews anti-Semitism took on a more racial tone. It is true that anti-Jewish libels had already reappeared in an anti-converso form, as in the famous blood libel trial of the case of ? the holy child of La Guardia (1490-1491). Similarly conversos, like Jews, kept hosts for evil purposes. But now purity of blood (limpieza de sangre) became an obsession and, although many conversos managed to hide their ? defect, those who were known not to possess ? pure blood increasingly found themselves barred from entering many offices in Church and State.

Notes 1. Helicon Encyclopedia of World History, Anti-Semitism 2. Fred Gladston Bratton, The Crime of Christendom (Boston: Beacon Press, 1969), 79. 3. Ibid, 79. 4. Quoted in Bratton, 80. Against Celcus. In The Anti-Nicene Fathers, edited by Alexander and James Donaldson (Grand Rapids, MI: W. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. , 1956), Vol. IV, 433. 5. Ibid, Vol. I, 219. 6. Bratton, 83. 7. Ibid, 83. 8. Quoted in Bratton, 83. From Oratiu in Christi: Resurrectionem: XV, 553. Europe and the Jews (Boston: Beacon Press, 1961) 26. 9. Quoted in Bratton, 83-84.

From Chrysostoms eight Homilies Against the Jews in Patrologia Graeca (Paris: Garnier, 1857-1866), 843-942. 10. Ibid. 11. Ibid. 12. Ibid. 13. Ibid. 14. Ibid. 15. Quoted in Bratton, 86. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, edited by Philip Schaff (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Co. , Vol. III, 1956), 373-74. 16. Ibid, Vol. VI, 447. 17. Ibid, Vol. VI, 397, 477, 496. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Atlas of Medieval Europe, Routledge, 2000 2,Fred Gladston Bratton, The Crime of Christendom, Beacon Press, 1969. 3. Fred Gladston Bratton, The Anti-Nicene Fathers, W. B.

Eerdmans Publishing Co. , 1956. 4. Helicon Encyclopedia of World History, Anti-Semitism. 5. Vamberto Morias, A Short History of Anti-Semitism, W. W. Norton and Company, 1976. 6. Prager, Why the Jews? , Simon & Schuster, 1983. Other Sources: 1. http://www. fordham. edu/halsall/jewish/jews-romanlaw. html Jewish History Sourcebook: Jews and the Later Roman Law 315-531 C. E. 2. http://www. fordham. edu/halsall/sbook. html Internet Medieval Sourcebook: Medieval Jewish Life 3. http://www. remember. org/ Classical and Christian Anti-Semitism Addendum A Brief Chronology of anti-Semitism.

(Source: Anti-Semitism, Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem, 1974, ISBN 0 7065-1327 4) 3rd cent. B. C. E. Manetho, Greco-Egyptian historian, says Jews were expelled from Egypt as lepers. 38 B. C. E. Anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria (Egypt): many Jews were killed, and all the Jews were confined to one quarter of the city. 19 C. E. Emperor Tiberius expels the Jews from Rome and Italy. 66Massacre of the Jews of Alexandria (Egypt) in which 50,000 were killed. 1st cent. C. E. Apion of Alexandria surpasses other Hellenistic anti-Semites in the crudeness of his fabrications.

200Tertullian, Church Father, writes his anti-Jewish polemic in Latin Adversus Judaeos. 325After the ecumenical council, Nicaea, the Christian Church formualtes its policy toward the Jews: the Jews must continue to exist for the sake of Christianity in seclusion and humiliation. 386-387John Chrysostom, Church Father in the East, violently anti-Jewish, delivers eight sermons in Antioch. 438Theodosius II, Roman emperor of the East, legalizes the civil inferiority of the Jews. 468Persecutions of the Jews in Babylonia. c. 470Jews persecuted in Babylonia by Firuz, the exilarch, and many Jews killed and their children given to Mazdeans.

535-553Emperor Justinian I issues his novellae to Corpus Juris Civilis expressing his anti-Jewish policy. 612Visigothic king Sisebut of Spain inaugurates a policy of forcible conversion of all Jews in the kingdom. 624-628Jewish tribes of Hejaz (Arabia) destroyed by Muhammad. 628Dagobert I expels Jews from Frankish kingdon. 632Heraclius, Byzantine emperor, decrees forced baptism of all Jews in the Byzantine empire. 632Official Church doctrine on conversion of Jews in Spain formulated. 638Visigothic king Chintila compels the sixth council of Toledo to adopt resolution proclaiming that only Catholics may reside in the kingdom Spain.

694-711All Jews under Visigothic rule in Spain declared slaves, their possessions confiscated and the Jewish religion outlawed. 717-20Caliph Omar 11 introduces series of discriminatory regulations against the dhimmi, the protected Christians and Jews, among them the wearing of a special garb. 1009-13Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim in Erez Israel issues severe restrictions against Jews. 1012Emperor Henry 11 of Germany expels Jews from Mainz, the beginning of persecutions against Jews in Germany. 1096-99First Crusade. Crusaders massacre the Jews of the Rhineland (1096).

1144Blood libel at Norwich (England); first record, blood libel. 1146Anti-Jewish riots in Rhineland by the Crusaders of the second Crusade. 1147Beginning of the brutal persecutors of the of North Africa under the Almohads, lasted until 1212. 1182King Philip Augustus of France decrees the expulsion of the Jews from his kingdom and the confiscation of their real estate. 1190Anti-Jewish riots in England: massacre at York,and other cities. 1215Fourth Lateran Council introduces the Jewish Badge. 1235Blood libel at Fulda, Germany. 1236Severe anti-Jewish persecutions in western France.

1240Disputation of Paris which led to the burning of the Talmud. 1242Burning of the Talmud at Paris. 1255Blood libel at Lincoln, England. 1263Disputation of Barcelona. 1290Expulsion of the Jews from England, the first of the great general expulsions of the Middle Ages. 1298-99Massacre of thousands of Jews in 146 localities in southern and central Germany led by the German knight Rindfleisch. 1306Expulsion of Jews from France. 1306-20Pastoureaux (Shepherds), participants of the second Crusade in France against the Muslims in Spain, attack the Jews of 120 localities in southwest France.

1321Persecutions against Jews in central France in consequence of a false charge of their supposed collusion with the lepers. 1321-22Expulsion from the kingdom of France. 1336-39Persecutions against Jews in Franconia and Alsace led by lawless German bands, the Armleder. 1348-50Black Death Massacres which spread throughout Spain, France, Germany and Austria, as a result of accusations that the Jews had caused the death of Christians by poisoning the wells and other water sources. 1389Massacre of the Prague (Bohemia) community. 1391Wave of massacres and conversions in Spain and Balearic Islands.

1394Expulsion from the kingdom of France. 1399Blood libel in Poznan. 1411-12Oppressive legislation against Jews in Spain as an outcome of the preaching of the Dominican friar Vicente Ferrer. 1413-14Disputation of Tortosa (Spain). The most important and longest of the Christian-Jewish disputations the consequence of which was mass conversions and intensified persecutions. 1421Persecutions of Jews in Vienna and its environs, confiscation of their possessions, and conversion of Jewish children, 270 Jews burnt at stake, known as the Wiener Gesera (Vienna Edict).

Expulsion of Jews from Austria. 1435Massacre and conversion of the Jews of Majorca. 1438Establishment of mellahs (ghettos) in Morocco. 1452-3John of Capistrano, Italian Franciscan friar, incites persecutions and expulsions of Jews from cities in Germany. 1473Marranos of Valladolid and Cordoba, in Spain massacred. 1474Marranos of Segovia, Spain, massacred. 1480Inquisition established in Spain. 1483Torquemada appointed inquisitor general of Spanish Inquisition. Expulsion of Jews from Warsaw.

1490-91Blood libel in La Guardia, town in Spain, where the alleged victim became revered as a saint. 1492Expulsion from Spain. 1492-93Expulsion from Sicily. 1495Expulsion from Lithuania. 1496-97Expulsion from Portugal: mass forced conversion. 1506Massacre of Marranos in Lisbon. 1510Expulsion of Jews from Brandenburg (Germany). 1516Venice initiates the ghetto, the first in Christian Europe. 1531Inquisition established in Portugal. 1535Jews of Tunisia expelled and massacred. 1541Expulsion from the kingdom of Naples. Expulsion from Prague and crown cities.

1544Martin Luther, German religious reformer, attacks the Jews with extreme virulence. 1550Expulsion from Genoa (Italy). 1551Expulsion from Bavaria. 1553Burning of the Talmud in Rome. 1554Censorship of Hebrew books introduced in Italy. 1556Burning of Marranos at Ancona, Italy. 1567Expulsion from the republic of Genoa (Italy). 1569, 1593Expulsion from the Papal States (Italy). 1614Vincent Fettmilch, anti-Jewish guild leader in Frankfort, Germany, attacks with his followers the Jews of the Town and forces them to leave the City. 1624Ghetto established at Ferrara (Italy).

1648-49Massacres initiated by Bogdan Chmielnicki, leader of the Cossacks, and peasant uprising against Polish rule in the Ukraine, in which 100,000 Jews were killed and 300 communities destroyed. 1650Jews of Tunisia confined to special quarters (Hara). 1655-56Massacres of Jews during the wars of Poland against Sweden and Russia. 1670Expulsion from Vienna: Blood libel at Metz (France). 1711Johann Andreas Eisenmenger rtes his Entdecktes Judenthum (Judaism Unmasked), a work denouncing Judaism and which had a formative influence on modern anti-Semitic polemics.

1712Blood libel in Sandomierz (Poland) after which the Jews of thetown were expelled. 1715Pope Pius VI issues a severe Edict concerning the Jews, in which he renews all former restrictions against them. 1734-36Haidamacks, paramilitary bands in Polish Ukraine, attack Jews. 1745Expulsion from Prague. 1768Haidamacks massacre the Jews of Uman (Poland) together with the Jews from other places who had sought refuge there. 1788Haidamacks massacre the Jews of Uman (Poland): 20,000 Jews and Poles killed. 1790-92Destruction of most of the Jewish communities of Morocco.

1791Pale of Settlements-twenty-five provinces of Czarist Russia established, where Jews permitted permanent residence: Jews forbidden to settle elsewhere in Russia. 1805Massacre of Jews in Algeria. 1819A series of anti-Jewish riots in Germany that spread to several neighboring countries (Denmark, Poland, Latvia and Bohemia) known as Hep! Hep! Riots, from the derogatory rallying cry against the Jews in Germany. 1827Compulsory military service for the Jews of Russia: Jewish minors under 18 years of age, known as Cantonists, placed in preparatory military training establishments.

1835Oppressive constitution for the Jews in Russia issued by Czar Nicholas 1. 1840Blood libel in Damascus (The Damascus Affair). 1853Blood libel in Saratov (Russia), bringing a renewal of the blood libel throughout Russia. 1858Abduction of a 7-year-old Jewish child, Edgard Mortara, in Bologna by Catholic conversionists (Mortara Case), an episode which aroused universal indignation in liberal circles. 1878Adolf Stoecker, German anti-Semitic preacher and politician, founds the Social Worker.

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