Communism in Ethiopia Essay

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My parents would always tell me about how the 1970s were a time of great change. It was a period in time where the youth of the world had had enough and began to question the society they lived and what it stood for. From the protests in the US over the Vietnam War to the counterculture movements in Europe, the youth of the world showed the power of the people. In Ethiopia, the monarchy was faced with the difficulty of keeping control over the population. However, failure to maintain the falling economy and the widespread hunger had left many Ethiopians feeling oppressed. Much like the rest of the world, the Ethiopians amassed and began mass riots and protests against the imperial regime. This evolved into more radical ideas to overthrow the monarchy and claim power over Ethiopia however in 1973 only one organized group had the capability to overthrow Emperor Haile Sellassie. This was the Derg. The rise and fall of the Derg Regime was an important point in the history of Ethiopia.

As the imperial regime was overthrown, the Derg was the beginning of a new era for Ethiopia. It had also brought in an era of great resilience from the Ethiopia people. This investigation is unique in the way that the Derg has not been viewed in this perspective. It is a controversial topic that is still discussed to this day and still creates arguments between opposing views. This extended essay may be able to shine some light on this topic and finally formulate a conclusion. Furthermore this investigation may provide helpful information for others who may be investigating a similar topic.

My research question which states to what extent was the Derg Regime a Communist Regime following Marxism-Leninism ideology? Is based on the statement made in the last page and is explained in this extended essay. To answer this question the investigation takes a look firstly at the Ethiopian revolution in 1974, which gave way to the rise of the Derg Regime. The investigation takes a look at the policies and ideologies the Derg Regime followed and implemented during its rule between 1974 till its demise in 1990, commenting on the Dergs attempts in applying Marxist-Leninist concepts. The concepts stated in the investigation include land reform, planned economy and the implementation of a socialist party.

1. The formation and rise of the Derg

In this section, the investigation looks at the key moments during the Ethiopian Revolution that had cemented the Dergs positions in power in Ethiopia.

1.1 Influences of the Ethiopian Revolution in 1974

The Ethiopian Students Movement was one of the major causes of the Ethiopian Revolution. The Addis Ababa University students strongly opposed the exploitive and oppressive system of Haile Selassies imperial regime. It developed in the 1950s in Addis Abeba University and began protesting for the improvement of learning facilities and services and demanding for freedom of press and organization[1]. After news spread of the Addis Ababa University students struggle, urban and rural students joined in the movement against the imperial regime in 1964 and were determined to overthrow the absolute monarchy[2]. The Ethiopian Students Movement had begun to create awareness of the autocratic rule in Ethiopia, shining a light on the true nature of Emperor Haile Selassies rule.

The students then began to protest on the streets with the slogan Land To The Tiller, arguing against the land reforms and privatization of land, which had immense effects on the livelihood of many Ethiopian peasants[3]. The Ethiopian Students Movement was supported by Ethiopian students abroad that had adopted the concepts of Marxism-Leninism. These students were active members in the Ethiopian Student Movement, teaching young university students about Marxism-Leninism. The concept of Communism was thus not a new notion in Ethiopia when the Derg decided to implement it. Further rebellion from the Armed Forces, the peasant revolt in the north, Ethiopian Teachers Union and the Taxi Drivers Union strikes had provided a viable opposition against the imperial regime.

The opposition against the imperial regime reached a peak in 1974 as Ethiopians amassed from different regions to form a series of protests and demonstrations demanding for radical changes. The widespread revolt had catastrophic results on Emperor Haile Selassies regime, resulting in the downfall of the corrupt government cabinet of the Prime Minister and members of the Ethiopian Government in 1974 and, after further growth of the Derg, the end of the monarch rule in Ethiopia.

1.2 Formation of The Derg Regime

On 28 June 1974, the Armed Forces, the Police and Territorial Army formed the Derg, a coordinating committee of the Ethiopian military. During the mass unrest in 1974, the Derg was formed to ask for salary increment and other grievances for the Ethiopian Armed Force[4]. However given the circumstances of that period, the emperor was faced with the issue of replacing the Prime Minister who had lost support from the general public and the military. This formed a power vacuum within the Ethiopia Government in which The Derg had filled. In the months to come the Derg maintained power and order.

As the civilian government began losing support from the general population due to their failure to solve the major issues within the nation, the Derg was able to continue to grow and gain control over many parts of the Ethiopian government by gaining key concessions from Emperor Haile Sellassie such as the ability to arrest military and government officials[5]. The leaders of the Derg, General Teferi Bente[6], Colonel Atnafu Abate[7] and Mengistu Haile Mariam[8] began to formulate plans to overthrow the Emperor and his imperial regime. On September 12, 1973 Emperor Haile Selassie was overthrown[9] and imprisoned by the Derg and the monarchy was later abolished in 1975. The Derg took control of the country and General Teferi Bente, Colonel Atnafu Abate and Mengistu Haile Mariam became the leading members of the Derg and one of the most powerful men in Ethiopia.

But Mengistu Haile Mariam, hungry for power, was not willing to share power between the other senior officials of the Derg Regime. He formulated a plot to assassinate General Teferi Bente, Colonel Atnafu Abate and other Derg officers who had opposed him. On February 3, 1977, gunfire was heard during a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Derg. The meeting ended with the death of 4 senior Derg officials[10], including General Teferi Bente. Colonel Atnafu Abate, suspicious of Mengistu Haile Mariam did not attend the meeting however he was disposed of and executed.[11] Mengistu Haile Mariam became the leader of the Derg Regime and gained power over Ethiopia.

2. Communism in Ethiopia

In this section, the investigation will take a look at the definitions of Communism and Marxism-Leninism and the influences of Communism within Ethiopia to show the reason for the Dergs adoption of Marxist-Leninist ideology.

2.1 Definition of Communism and Marxism-Leninism

Envisioned by German scholar Karl Marx[12], Communism is based on the ideology that aims for a classless and stateless society. It is a movement that is structured on common ownership of the means of production, free access to necessities such as food and water and the end of private property and wage labor. It is an ideology that encourages the idea that everyone is equal and no one is better off or worse off then anyone else, the idea of a free society. Communism was also a starting point for the introduction of many political systems such as Stalinism[13] and Maoism[14]. Marxism-Leninism is a communist ideology based on the theories of Marxism and Vladimir Lenin that promotes the development and creation of international communist society through the leadership of a vanguard party over a revolutionary socialist state that represents a dictatorship of the proletariat.[15]

2.2 Influences of Ethiopian Communism

Despite Ethiopias close ties with the United States, The Derg Regime seemed eager on forming an alliance with the Soviet Union and its Communist allies. This was because Mengistu Haile Mariam was one of the most dedicated advocates to the concept of Marxism-Leninism[16]. The leaders of the Derg had also felt uncomfortable with continuing relations with the West. Due to the West seemingly failing to be dynamic when its leader, the United States whos president seemed to have retreated internationally and was dealing with internal issues such as Vietnam[17] and the Watergate scandal[18], The Derg felt that the West had seemingly forgotten Ethiopia[19]. There was also fear that the West would break all ties with Ethiopia due to the dethroning of Emperor Haile Sellassie who had developed strong ties with the Western world and was long admired globally and that the execution of several dozen senior official who had worked closely with Western governments may also affect the worlds view of Ethiopia[20].

The Derg were not the only ones influencing the introduction of Marxism-Leninism to Ethiopia. With the Soviets tasting success in Angola, they began to proceed into the Horn of Africa. The Soviet Union already had a strong position in Somalia however the Soviets wanted to expand their influence into other nations. They saw Ethiopia as having far more potential and had much more influence in the Horn of Africa than Somalia. The Soviets in fact formulated plans during the 19th century to enter Ethiopia and form an alliance with the emperor[21]. After the Carter Administration took power in the U.S, U.S military commitments abroad had been reduced and after a negative human rights report on Ethiopia was released, U.S ties with Ethiopia were terminated[22]. This paved the way for relations between the Soviet Union and Ethiopia in 1977.

This agreement between the Derg Regime and the Soviet Union had meant that there was even more encouragement from the Soviet Union for Ethiopia to adopt Marxism-Leninism. Furthermore, after Emperor Haile Selassies downfall, Ethiopia students abroad, who had felt hatred for the imperial regime and therefore disliked the US involvement in Ethiopia, returned and encouraged Marxist and Leninist ideology. Hence, as earlier stated, due to the Addis Ababa University students close affiliation with Communism; the application of the ideology was made acceptable in Ethiopia.

3. Concepts of Marxist-Leninist Communism that the Derg attempted to implement

Much like most Communist regimes around the world, the Derg Regime came into power through a military coup[23]. Similar to many Communist regimes in the developing world, the Derg Regime was largely influenced by the Soviet Union. It has been estimated that the Soviet Union has provided millions of dollars worth of military aid to help Ethiopia during The Ogaden War against Somalia.[24]

Later the Soviet Union and Cuba were also involved in planning and fighting against the close approaching rebel alliances of the TPLF[25] and the EPLF[26] in the north. The Derg regimes successful control over the government was largely due to the influence of the Soviet Union and support provided to the Ethiopian military by the Soviet Union. It is assumed that the Derg had adopted Marxist-Leninist ideology simply to gain relations with the Soviet and most importantly gain military aid as well.

During their time in power, the Derg had begun to put into action policies, which coincided with Marxist-Leninist ideologies. These policies included planned economy and land reform. One of the first changes the Derg made was to establish a planned economy. A planned economy is an economic system in which the state manages the economy. The government controls the industry to a point in which it is able to make decisions regarding production and distribution.

The Derg began restructuring the economy during 1974, nationalizing all banks, insurance companies and large scale industries within Ethiopia. The Derg began to develop a yearly strategy in which it could revitalize the fallen economy. The plans did show progress as it helped deal with urgent economic problems like shortages of food, rising unemployment, lack of foreign exchange and decline in economic productivity[27].

However Andargachew Tirunehs book The Ethiopian Revolution 1974-1987, mentions that some large businesses had not been nationalized such as the private grain trade and the Quit[28] Share Company. The Derg had even assured domestic and international businessmen that it did not have any intentions of nationalizing their assets[29]. Moreover almost all Ethiopian workers were members of the CELU[30], where many workers had developed habits of allowing independent thinking between their leaders and were largely oriented to Western style capitalism. Despite the CELU adopting western style business strategies, the Derg showed no sign of nationalizing or deconstructing the organization.

It seems that the Dergs main objective was to seem progressive in the eyes of the civilian leftists who had been urging the nationalization of the means of production and hence the abolition of imperialism and national capitalism[31]. It could also been mentioned that the list of proposed businesses to be industrialized was in bulk owned by aliens[32], showing hints that the Dergs hidden agenda was not to follow Marxist-Leninist concepts but to gain control over foreign assets. This all accumulated to the true reason for the implementation of a planned economy which was so that the Derg would be able to gain control over Ethiopias economy and gain foreign capital by nationalizing most foreign owned businesses

Agriculture, which is the main form of industry in Ethiopia, was struggling due to the poor weather conditions; regional conflicts and inflexible government policies affected the development of the agriculture industry. Hence the Derg began to formulate plans for land reform. Land reform is one of the most common principles of Communist ideology. It most commonly involves the nationalization and redistribution of all land.

This was a way to break down social classes and give equal opportunity for all people to possess land. During the Derg Regime, legislation was adopted in 1975 stating that all rural land had been nationalized and was the collective property of the Ethiopian People.[33] The land had been redistributed and peasant associations were organized to delegate representatives to form the Awaraja Peasants Association. Furthermore the legislation continued to state that urban land was also to be nationalized including the excess homes owned by any one person.

These were again one of the concepts of Marxism-Leninism that was incorporated in the Dergs plans to rejuvenate the Ethiopian economy. However the Derg had a hidden agenda. As the Derg began distributing land to the peasants, it was actually trying to buy the peasants support for the Derg Regime.

However the Soviet agriculture model presents a problem for Ethiopia because the country is heavily dependent on agriculture as its major source of GDP as well as signs of intense strain on the food supply in Ethiopia. Hence the land reform had not successfully been implemented in the rural areas because it meant that the peasants would not be able to cultivate the land and produce enough food for the population.

Life in Ethiopia had also changed during the Derg Regime. Mengistu Haile Mariam established strict rules over the Ethiopian people. A curfew was established until midnight and all forms of expression, from music to art, was banned unless it was pro socialist. Even the way people were greeted had changed during the period. Much like the Soviet Union, the Ethiopian people were forced to greet their friends and family as comrades. Many necessities were rationed because of the strict regulations set by the Derg. The main reason or the rationing of items such as rice and cooking oil was mainly due to the prohibiting of foreign goods from being sold in the country.

Even petrol for vehicles were rationed to the point were people were not able to drive their cars on Sundays due to the lack of petrol for their cars. Furthermore there was complete censorship of all information. All newspapers and magazines had to be checked by the censorship office and at times were not allowed to be distributed to the general public if the censorship office deemed some of the content to be inappropriate. This was further evidence of the Dergs continuous oppression over the Ethiopian people. It may have also been an opportunity to gain support from abroad if the Derg showed resilience to capitalism.

One other aspect of national life that Communism had abolished or made an attempt to was religion. Karl Marx once stated the abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is required for their real happiness. The demand to give up the illusion about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusions[34]. However the Derg did not abide to this concept. John Browns essay Religion and Revolution in Ethiopia mentions that the Derg still guaranteed religious freedom despite Communist policies against religion[35].

Despite the Derg Regime adopting certain Communist concepts such as land nationalization, it had failed to form a vanguard party despite continuous encouragement by the Soviet Union. After defeating the Somalis in the Ogaden War, The Derg Regime felt a slight distaste for political parties. This discontent for political parties grew ever more when it was discovered that the Cubans and South Yemenis wanted to speed up the process of forming a proletarian party in Ethiopia[36]. In May 1978 they smuggled in a Marxist intellectual, Negede Gobeze[37], to begin organizing a proletarian party. After being told about Negede Gobezes arrival in Ethiopia, Mengistu Haile Mariam expelled the Cuban ambassador and his staff, the Yemeni charge Daffairs and few weeks later, the Soviet ambassador for their involvement in the situation.[38] Furthermore, the capture and imprisonment of many Marxist supporters who had fled to Wollega[39] proved the Dergs shift in ideology.

The Derg had formulated a political program called Ethiopian Socialism which was derived only from the interpretations of Ethiopian culture and religion.[40] This style of socialism was criticized, by an article called Ethiopian Socialism or Scientific Socialism? by Voices of the Masses, as falling foul of the Marxist-Leninist approach that Mengistu Haile Mariam had taken earlier during the revolution. It had also failed to follow the fundamental laws of socialism[41]. Democracia, a weekly Ethiopian paper, stated in an article called What Kind of Socialism? their disappointment of the addition of the word socialism in the program, as it is a concept used differently throughout the world[42]. It continued to state that the concepts envisioned in the 12 page document of the Ethiopian Socialism program contradicted many concepts of socialism. For example the perception of labor as meaning hard work and not a class of citizens who sell their labor showed the lack of desire to abolish exploitation and equality of the classes[43].

The Dergs failure to cohere with relative definitions of socialism or even incorporate any concrete concepts of Marxism-Leninism was firstly due to the Dergs lack of knowledge of the Marxist-Leninist ideology and secondly because it seemed the Derg had no intention of following Marxist-Leninist ideology or even any other Communist ideology. The reason for adopting Marxist-Leninist ideology was simple, because it encouraged the introduction of a one party government. Once realized that the Derg officials had blood on their hands during the Ethiopian Revolution[44], they needed to protect the power of the Derg to protect them from persecution. Hence the Derg was affiliated with Communism, claiming that it followed Marxist-Leninist ideology.

However its main objective was to remove the possibility of any opposition arising against the Derg[45]. Despite continuous demand from opposition for the Derg to establish a Provisional Peoples Government that was able to represent more sections of the population than the Derg could, the Derg ignored their pleas and continued to wield power over Ethiopia. The formation of the AESM[46] and EPRP[47] was so that Ethiopia would finally be able to have a Provisional Peoples Government who has adopted the ideologies of Communism, namely Marxism-Leninism. However the Derg would not budge, allowing the AESM to take control of only the UDA[48]. Tirunehs book also states that Mengistu Haile Mariam had renounced Marxism-Leninism as the Dergs ideology[49]. This was further evidence of the Dergs resilience to fully adopting the Marxist-Leninist ideology and further implementing the formation of Ethiopia into a socialist state.

On the other hand, in Donald L. Donhams book Marxist Modern, it is stated that in 1976, Mengistu had made moves leftward to embrace the ideology of the AESM and EPRP. The Derg announced the beginning of a national democratic revolution where Mengistu proclaimed that scientific socialism would be the guiding ideology of the state and that a party would be eventually forged from newly trained cadre[50] to assume power in a peoples democratic republic[51]. This attempt at reconciling with the AESM was established 5 years before the Derg had been overthrown. Hence it may be assumed that the Derg was making an attempt to forge an alliance with the two socialist parties who were eager to begin the full implementation of Marxist Leninist ideology in Ethiopia.

It seems the contradicting views of the authors, Andargachew Tiruneh and Donald L. Donham has created conflict over the validity of the Dergs implementation of Marxist-Leninist ideology. As Tiruneh states that the Derg failed to accumulate the support of the Ethiopian people to the concept of Marxism-Leninism, Donham argues that the Ethiopian people had embraced Marxism as a form of rebellion against the imperial regime[52]. Furthermore as Donhams book states that the Derg had actually made efforts to form an alliance with the AESM and EPRP to implement scientific socialism as the ideology of the state[53], Tiruneh argues that the Derg had no intention of giving power to the two socialist parties.[54]

However, Tirunehs book amasses much more evidence of the Dergs failure to fully implement Marxism-Leninism as the ideology of the state. Donhams novel fails to gather as much evidence of the Dergs loyalty to following Marxist-Leninist concepts, rather taking a more broad and summarized look at the Derg and its Communist ideology as a whole. It seems that the Derg had no intention of adopting the Marxist-Leninist concepts. It was simply an excuse to gain control over the country and gain foreign aid in the form of military equipment.

4. Conclusion

Despite the Derg implementing certain concepts of Marxist-Leninist ideology such as land reform and the nationalization of industries, it would shy away from forming a vanguard party with the AESM and/or the EPRP to take control of the country. Furthermore the Derg failed to fully nationalize certain large-scale businesses, such as the Quat Share Company. However the Derg did establish a form of socialism much similar to African Socialism yet Ethiopian Socialism, as it was called, was to an extent not a viable alternative to Marxist-Leninist Communism. It did not even relate to the concepts of socialism and hence does not affect the validity of the final assumption of this investigation.

It can be safely assumed that the reason the Derg had adopted Communist ideologies was largely to win the support of the Ethiopian public and form alliance with the Soviet Union who would donate military aid to Ethiopia. The Derg then had realized that it took more than solemn promises and slight policy changes to be seen as progressing in the eyes of the AESM, EPRP and the Communist world. However despite its efforts to reconcile with the Communist parties in Ethiopia, it is assumed that the Derg was simply buying time so as to be able to remain in power.

This investigation has given evidence proving the validity of the statement mentioned in the introduction. Hence that is why this investigation comes to the conclusion that the Derg regime in Ethiopia was not a Communist regime. A question still lingers over the possibility that the proper implementation of Marxist-Leninist ideology by the Derg could have been quite successful in transforming Ethiopia into a socialist state. This question remains unanswered and could make the basis of another investigation.

Bibliography

Books

¢ Adejumobi, A. Saheed. 2007. The history of Ethiopia. Westport. Greenwood Press

¢ Donham, L. Donald. 1999. Marxist Modern An Ethnographic History of the Ethiopian Revolution. Los Angeles. University of California Press.

¢ Tiruneh, Andargachew. 1993. The Ethiopian Revolution 1974-1987 a transformation from an aristocratic to a totalitarian autocracy. Cambridge. Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.

¢ Zewde, Bahru.1991. A History of Modern Ethiopia 1855-1974. London (first published in Addis Ababa). James Curry Ltd.

¢ Zewde, Bahru.2002. A History of Modern Ethiopia 1855-1991. Addis Ababa. Addis Ababa University

¢ Zewde, Bahru.2008. Society, State and History selected essays. Addis Ababa. Addis Ababa University Press

Websites

¢ A brief history of Eritrea: Part 1, visited 23.10.11, http://africanhistory.about.com/od/eritrea/p/EritreaHist1.htm, About.com African History

¢ Communist Ethiopia-is it succeeding? Visited 25.10.11, www.rand.org/pubs/papers/2008/p7054.pdf.

¢ Ethiopia: Communism, Africa-Style, visited 23.10.11, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,950926,00.html, Time Magazine US

¢ Ethiopian Revolution, visited 24.10.11, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/ethiopia.htm,

¢ Haile Sellassie and Ethiopia, visited 23.10.11,http://olympia.fossilized.org/hailesellassie.html

¢ Karl Marx on Religion, Visited 25.10.11, http://atheism.about.com/od/weeklyquotes/a/marx01.htm, Agnosticism/Atheism

¢ Rebels with a cause: Examining the lives the Ethiopian Revolution participants, visited 24.10.11, http://www.international.ucla.edu/calendar/showevent.asp?eventid=7374, UCLA International institute

¢ Religion and the Marxist State in Ethiopia: The Case of the Ethiopian Jews, Visited 25.10.11,
http://www.biblicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/rcl/17-3_247.pdf

¢ The Cold War, visited 25.10.11, http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/big/w30coldwar.htm

¢ The Derg, visited 24.10.11, http://www.ethiopiantreasures.co.uk/pages/derg.htm

¢ The Ethiopian Students Movement in the struggle against Imperialism, visited 23.10.11, http://sirius-c.ncat.edu/AAU-Network/news/feature/esm.html

¢ The Imperial Constitution of Imperial Ethiopia, visited 25.10.11, http://www.angelfire.com/ny/ethiocrown/Constitution.html

¢ The Story of Africa, Independence, visited 26.10.11, http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/14chapter1.shtml, BBC World Service

Essays

¢ Kiros, Kidane, 2008, The Right to self-determination and Accommodation of Cultural diversity: The case of Ethiopian ethnic-federalism, IFF Summer University

”””””””
[1] Haile Sellassie and Ethiopia, visited 23.10.11, http://olympia.fossilized.org/hailesellassie.html

[2] Def. an absolute monarchy is a regime that has total control over all aspects of government and is not restrained by laws or a constitution (Definition of absolute monarchy, visited 24.10.11, http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/absolute+monarchy)

[3] Haile Sellassie and Ethiopia, visited 23.10.11, http://olympia.fossilized.org/hailesellassie.html

[4] The Derg, visited 23.10.11, www.ethiopiantreasures.co.uk/pages/derg.htm,

[5] The Derg, visited 23.10.11, www.ethiopiantreasures.co.uk/pages/derg.htm,

[6] Teferi Bente was leading member of the Derg and Head of State of Ethiopia from 1974 to 1977 (Visited 24.10.11, www.dictionary.sensagent.com/tafari+benti/en-en/.)

[7] Atnafu Abate was a Vice-Chairman of the Derg who had bitter rivalry over Mengistu Haile Mariam over control of the Derg (The Ethiopian Revolution 1974-1987, pg. 64)

[8] Mengistu Haile Mariam was elected Chairman of the Derg and soon became the leader of the Derg. He had encouraged the formation of a socialist state in Ethiopia, following Marxism-Leninism ideologies. (The Ethiopian Revolution 1974-1987, pg. 64)

[9] Emperor Haile Sellassie died on the 27th of August 1975 due to respiratory failure.

[10] Adejumobi, A. Saheed, The history of Ethiopia, pg. 124

[11] Atnafu Abate, visited 25.10.11. www.dictionary.sensagent.com/atnafu+abate/en-en/

[12] Karl Marx was the German philosopher who had developed the concept of Marxism and laid a significant role in the development of the socialist political movement (visited 25.10.11, www.plato.stanford.edu/entries/marx)

[13] Stalinism is defined as the application of Marxist-Leninist principle associated with Joseph Stalin

[14] Maoism is defined as Marxism-Leninism as interpreted and developed by Mao Zedong

[15] Marxism-Leninism, visited 23.10.11, www.answers.com/topic/marxism-leninism,

[16] Henze, Paul B. Communist Ethiopia-is it succeeding? Visited 25.10.11, www.rand.org/pubs/papers/2008/p7054.pdf,

[17] The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. (Henze, Paul B. Communist Ethiopia-is it succeeding? visited 25.10.11, www.rand.org/pubs/papers/2008/p7054.pdf)

[18] The Watergate scandal is a political scandal in 1970 in the U.S involving the breaking in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters and the involvement of the Nixon Administration. (Henze, Paul B. Communist Ethiopia-is it succeeding? visited 25.10.11, www.rand.org/pubs/papers/2008/p7054.pdf)

[19] Henze, Paul B. Communist Ethiopia-is it succeeding? Visited 25.10.11, www.rand.org/pubs/papers/2008/p7054.pdf,

[20] Despite this, the West had still continued to hold ties with Ethiopia. The US had in fact even contributed some military aid to Ethiopia.

[21] The Cold War. Visited 25.10.11, http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/big/w30coldwar.htm

[22] Henze, Paul B. Communist Ethiopia-is it succeeding? Visited 25.10.11.www.rand.org/pubs/papers/2008/p7054.pdf.

[23] Many Communist regimes came to power by revolution where Communism replaces capitalism. Examples include the Cuban Revolution of 1959 and the

[24] Visited 25.10.11,www.countrystudies.us/Ethiopia/137.htm

[25] Tigrean Peoples Liberation Front

[26] Eritrean Peoples Liberation Front

[27] Henze, Paul B. Communist Ethiopia-is it succeeding? Visited 25.10.11.www.rand.org/pubs/papers/2008/p7054.pdf.

[28] Def. the leaves of the shrub Catha edulis which are chewed like tobacco or used to make tea (visited 25.10.11, www.thefreedictionary.com)

[29] The Ethiopian Revolution 1974-1987, pg. 86

[30] Confederation of Ethiopian Labor Unions, an umbrella organization that represented some labor unions in Ethiopia

[31] The Ethiopian Revolution 1974-1987, pg. 96

[32] Aliens in this case refers to the foreigners who lived in Ethiopia, most of the foreigners living in Ethiopia originated from Italy. The Ethiopian Revolution 1974-1987, pg. 119

[33] The Ethiopian Revolution 1974-1987, pg. 100

[34] Karl Marx on Religion. Visited 25.10.11. http://atheism.about.com/od/weeklyquotes/a/marx01.htm

[35] Friedman, S. Galia. Religion and the Marxist State in Ethiopia: The Case of the Ethiopian Jews, Visited 25.10.11, http://www.biblicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/rcl/17-3_247.pdf

[36] Henze, Paul B. Communist Ethiopia-is it succeeding? Visited 25.10.11.www.rand.org/pubs/papers/2008/p7054.pdf.

[37] Negede Gobeze was one of the most active members of the Movement of All Ethiopian Socialists and worked closely with Haile Fida.

[38] Henze, Paul B. Communist Ethiopia-is it succeeding? Visited 25.10.11.www.rand.org/pubs/papers/2008/p7054.pdf.

[39] A former province found in the southern regions of Ethiopia

[40] The Ethiopian Revolution 1974-1987, pg. 86-87

[41] The Ethiopian Revolution 1974-1987, pg. 87

[42] The Ethiopian Revolution 1974-1987, pg. 87

[43] The Ethiopian Revolution 1974-1987, pg. 88

[44] Many of the Derg officials have been accused of genocide (note that genocide in Ethiopia also means the killing of political groups and not only ethnic groups as well) and would have been trialed if not for the Derg taking power of Ethiopia. (Henze, Paul B. Communist Ethiopia-is it succeeding? Visited 25.10.11.www.rand.org/pubs/papers/2008/p7054.pdf.)

[45]Henze, Paul B. Communist Ethiopia-is it succeeding? Visited 25.10.11.www.rand.org/pubs/papers/2008/p7054.pdf.

[46] All Ethiopian Socialist Movement

[47] Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Party

[48] Urban Dwellers Association

[49] The Ethiopian Revolution 1974-1987, pg. 383

[50] Def. a cadre is a group of trained personnel able to assume control and to train others (visited 25.10.11, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cadre)

[51] Donham, L. Donald, Marxist Modern An Ethnographic History of the Ethiopian Revolution, pg. 133

[52] Marxist Modern An Ethnographic History of the Ethiopian Revolution, pg. 127

[53] Marxist Modern An Ethnographic History of the Ethiopian Revolution, pg. 133

[54] The Ethiopian Revolution 1974-1987, pg. 146

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