2. Small vs. Large States on the matter of representation to Congress- Criticism has to do with the fact that some smaller states have many more electoral votes than larger one. Because of this critics claim that candidates concentrate their campaign efforts in states with large numbers of electoral votes. Another is that it does not accurately express the will of the people and blocks the democratic process. Some point out that in some states electors are not legally bound to the decisions of the voters. The state electoral votes do not completely reflect the will of the people.
Another criticism is that a presidential candidates electoral votes may not accurately reflect his or her share of the popular votes. The winner take all system is the basis of another criticism. Since the candidate winning most of a states popular votes win all of that states electoral votes. 3. The Monroe Doctrine- declared that the United States opposed any further colonization in the Americas or any effort by European nations to extend their political systems outside of their own hemisphere. In return, the United States pledged not to involve itself in the internal affairs of Europe or to take part in European wars.
The statement envisioned a North and South America composed entirely of independent republics and the United States would be preeminent. The Monroe Doctrine made little impression on the great powers of Europe at the time it was proclaimed; it signified the rise of a new sense of independence and self-confidence in American attitudes toward the Old World. The United States would now go its own way free of involvement in European conflicts and would energetically protect its own sphere from European interference. The Doctrine also reflected the inward looking nationalism that had arisen after the War of 1812.
The refusal of Congress to recognize Greek independence revealed the extent to which America and detached itself from active involvement in a worldwide struggle against tyranny. America came close to denying a part of its revolutionary heritage in favor of a more conventional patriotism and sense of national interest. 4. The Electoral College- Group of people elected from each state who cast ballots for President and Vice President. Electoral votes are ballots cast for President and Vice President in the Electoral College by persons from each state who are pledged to the presidential ticket that won the popular vote in that state.
The Electoral College never actually meets as a national body in one place. Instead the state of electors supporting the winning presidential ticket in each state gathers in their state capital the December following the election to cast their ballots for Presidents and Vice President. In most states, the electors are pledged to vote for their partys candidates. But the constitution does not hold them to their pledges. In fact a number of elections, individuals electors or groups of electors have not voted for the candidates in whose names they were chosen. 5.
The Whiskey Rebellion- was a crisis that developed in 1794 when a group of farmers living in western Pennsylvania protested a federal excise tax on distilled whiskey that Congress had originally passed 1791. These men did not relish paying any taxes, but this tax struck them as particularly unfair. The made a good deal of money distilling their grain into whiskey, and the excise threatened to put them out of business. Because the Republican governor of Pennsylvania refused to suppress the angry farmers, Washington and other leading Federalists assumed that the insurrection represented a direct political challenge.
The President called out fifteen thousand militiamen and accompanied by Hamilton, he marched against the rebels. The expedition was an embarrassing fiasco. The distillers disappeared and no one living in the Pittsburg region seemed to know where the troublemakers had gone. Two supposed rebels were convicted of high crimes against the United States, one reportedly a simpleton and the other insane. Washington eventually pardoned both men. As peace returned to the frontier, Republicans gained much electoral support from voters whom the Federalists had alienated. Part 2.
What do the terms Loyalist and Patriot mean? Who supported the loyalists and who supported the patriots during the War of Independence? And describe the series of events. Loyalists are American colonists who supported the British cause during the Revolutionary War. Perhaps one third of the total population, representing all social and economic groups, remained loyal to Britain for a variety of reasons. Denial of citizenship and the protection of law, banishment, and confiscation of property were common penalties suffered by the loyalists, many of who fled the colonies.
Those who settled in Canada became known as United Empire Loyalists. In the period following peace the British government made good much of the Loyalists losses. Britain and British citizens supported the Loyalists. Patriots were the colonists that were fiercely opposing the British rule over the colonies and believed in independence and were supported by colonists and the continental army, as well as foreign aid that was solicited. British strategists never appreciated the depth of the Americans commitment to a political ideology as that of the Patriot.
In the war of the eighteenth century Europe such beliefs had seldom mattered. European troops before the French Revolution served because they were paid or because they military was a vocation, but most certainly not because they hoped to advance a set of constitutional principals. Patriots were different. Some young men were drawn to the military by bounty money or by the desire to escape unhappy families. A few were drafted. But taking such people into account, one still encounters among the Patriots a remarkable commitment to republican ideals.
During the earliest months of rebellion, Patriots especially those of New England, suffered no lack of confidence. They interpreted their courageous stands at Concord and Bunker Hill as evidence that brave, yeomen farmers could beat any British regulars on any battlefield. George Washington spent the first years of the war disabusing the colonists of this foolishness, for he had learned during the French and Indian war, military success depended upon endless drill, careful planning and though discipline, qualities that did not characterize the minute-men or Patriots.
Washington insisted upon organizing a regular, well trained field army. Some advisers urged the commander in chief to wage a guerrilla war, one in which small bands would sap Britains will to rule Americans. But Washington rejected that course. He recognized that the Continental army served not only as a fighting force, but also as a symbol for the republican cause. Its very existence would give American agents a possibility to solicit foreign aid for the cause.
This thinking shaped Washingtons wartime strategy. One thing Washington did fail to consider were the importance of the militia or Patriots. These were scattered military units who seldom altered the outcome of battle but they did maintain control. They compelled men and women who would rather have remained neutral to support actively the American effort. Without this local political coercion, Washingtons task would have been considered more difficult.