Olympic Event 139,836 156,866 12. 2% Non-Olympic Event 43,501 41,277 5. 1% Total 183,337 198,143 8. 1% There were 14,836 more samples that were analyzed in 2006 compared to 2005 representing an 8. 1% increase for one year. Table 3 Adverse Findings Comparison Between 2005 and 2006 Sporting Event 2005 2006 % difference Olympic Event 2,958 2,915 1. 5% Non-Olympic Event 951 972 2,2% Total 3,909 3,887 0. 6% The number of adverse findings in dropped 0. 6% from 2005 figures(3,909 to 3,887). Table 4 Top Five Sports with Most Samples Analyzed Sports Samples Analyzed Adverse Findings % Adverse Football 25,727 281 1. 09%.
Athletics 19,781 315 1. 59% Baseball 15,977 370 2. 32% Cycling 14,229 594 4. 17% Aquatics 11,582 137 1. 18% Among the sports included in the calendar of the Olympics, football had the most number of samples analyzed with cycling having the most number of atheletes with adverse findings. Source: World Anti-Doping Agency(2007 May 10). 2006 Adverse Analytical Findings Reported by Accredited Laboratories. The Evolution of New Blood Doping Techniques Aside from blood transfusion, new trends in blood doping include erythropoietin (EPO) and synthetic oxygen carriers. The former consists of naturally produced peptide hormones.
It is emitted from the kidneys and does its of stimulating red blood cells production. The latter, on the other hand, contains purified proteins which can provide oxygen. But just like blood transfusion, both methods are prohibited as well. They can easily be detected. In fact, tests for EPO and synthethic oxygen carriers were conducted in 2000 and 2004, respectively(WADA, n. d)). The Risks Involved in Blood Doping There have been number of incidents that has proven the potential risk that blood doping could bring to an athlete. In an 1886 race stretching from Bordeaux to Paris, Arthur Linton was killed.
Eighteen years later, Thomas Hicks was killed after scoring a victory during the Olympics held at Saint-Louis. Dorando Pietri was likewise killed. Dutch cyclist Jensen biked to his death during the Olympic Games held in Rome after being injected with Ronicol. Another victim was Tom Simpson, competing in the Tour de France collapsed during a climb to Mount Ventoux. He died due to amphetamines. Finally, weightlifter Kangasniesmi died with a broken spine in 1975 after taking anabolic steroids. These are just some of the incidents that prove the possible risk of blood doping on the health of an athlete(CNRS, 1998).
There is minimal information about the risks of doping to the health of sportsmen once they have retired from their career. However, these substances can bring about certain health complications such as heart conditions ot cancer. The possibility of getting these diseases is not a far-fetched possiblity(CNRS, 1998). Taking a single substance does not have the capacity to enhance an athletes performance or increase their stamina during trainings. In order to have the desired effect, an athlete will take several drugs and these could generate the potential risk of doping.
For example, amphetamine is taken together with corticoids and cocaine. Another example is EPO combined with aspirin or synthetic glucocorticoids. There are other possible combinations and they are dependent on the need of the athlete(CNRS, 1998). Blood doping can likewise bring about psychological and behavioral risks. For example, overdose of caffeine results to overexcitement, insomia, nervousness, or anxiety attacks. Too much of amphetamine or cocaine may lead to anger and violence, altered judgment, anxiety, or hyperactivity(CNRS, 1998).
In addition, doping can bring about the occurrence of iatrogenic disorders which requires early diagnosis and prescription. These drugs usually combined with other substances at high level can alter the behavior and morphology of the person taking the substance. Using a medical approach to the problem of doping can result to intensive investigation of the issue as well as the ineligibility concerns(CNRS, 1998). Moreover, athletes can likewise become susceptible to anemia and in the process become incapable of undergoing a high level of competitiveness.
In the case of homologous doping, then there is the possiblity of getting infected with blood-borne viruses which can incapacitate the athlete as well(CNRS, 1998). Suggestions for Controlling Blood Doping After having analyzed the unfavorable effects of blood doping, it is but proper that measures should be established in order to gradually decrease or if not totally eradicate this illegal practice. Here are some of the steps that can be initiated for an effective blood doping control program(CNRS, 1998). 1. A study should be coducted regarding the medical and social factors of this issue.
The former should focus on determining the effects of doping on the physical and psychological well-being of the individual(CNRS, 1998). 2. The conduct of monitoring and medical evaluation must be implemented over an extended period of time. This can be done by establishing multidisciplinary networks, carrying out doping semiology, securing the contracts of doctors who are working with sportsmen, and establishing an independent field focusing on sports medicine in the curriculum of medical schools(CNRS, 1998).
3. Each member of society must be vigilant about the possible consequences of doping. Both existing and former athletes must be included in the drug monitoring agenda. Likewise, there should be continous research on new substances being used for blood doping which are gaining support in the market(CNRS, 1998). 4. Detection strategies should be further improved since innovations in medicine, food, and researches concerning sports and health are advanced as well.
There should be programs that would provide opportunity for studying how sports techniques and equipments evolve(CNRS, 1998). 5. Parents, students, teachers, sports administrators and officials, and all sectors of society must be made to understand about the extent of the blood doping problem. Blood doping must be integrated into the curriculum of medical schools(CNRS, 1998). 6. Politics should be eradicated in the blood doping efforts of the government. International sports federations must draw up a grassroots programs that would monitor the development of new players.
Each state must come up with a strategy that would efficiently consider the facilities, equipments, age at which new athletes will begin competing(CNRS, 1998). Conclusion Blood doping is an illegal practice that will not only put a stain on the spirit of competition and fair play in international sports competitions but also endanger the health and lives of athletes. Blood doping does not only concern the athletes and sports officials but also the entire public. For the young people who will someday be in the shoes of these athletes, this will serve as an eye opener to them as well as their parents.
All of us have a role in making sure that blood doping would no longer claim the lives of athletes whose only desire for competing in the Olympics and other international meets is to bring honor to their countries and have a shot at claiming glory.
References Canadian Center For Ethics In Sports(n. d). History of Blood Sampling. Retrieved June 21 2008 from
html> Guttman, A(2008). Olympic Games. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21 2008 from