In Russia, the prevailing ideology which was thought would surely bring about positive change was Marxist Communism. And although it was recognized by many individuals that the sort of Communism Marx was advocating could not be implemented in Russia, leaders such as Lenin so no reason as to why Communism in Russia could not be achieved.
Many thinkers were against the idea because they believed that if Marxism was to be most effective, it needed to be implemented according to the book. This literal interpretation of Marxism called for the proper circumstances in the country before any thought of making the country Communist. Namely, the country needed to have a proletariat revolution against the bourgeoisie. The circumstance of have one capitalistic class owning all the means of production would lay the groundwork for a revolution. It would also give the proletariat a sense of identity and a common goal.
And with the history of bourgeoisie rule fresh in their mind, the revolution would surely survive beyond the beginning stages as the newly free proletariat would be free to write the history books describing the horrors of bourgeois rule. 2. What is the relationship between Communism and Fascism? Although many people believe Communism and Fascism are opposing belief systems, the opposite is actually true as they hold definite commonalities. Communism, in the form of Marx and Engels, gave rise, in a sense, to Fascism.
And although on its surface the ruling nature of a Fascist society, in which all the power is condensed into the hands of the few, resembles the proletarian/bourgeoisie division inherent to Marxist Communism which calls for the elimination of such a society, this is not the case. For although Fascists may or may not view their form of governing in this way those that do draw parallels not between the rulers and the ruled in a single nation, but rather in the entire world. In this way, an economically deficient country is seen, in the larger scope of international relations, as the proletariat country amongst bourgeois nations, i.
e. , more economically advanced nations. This view allow the Fascists the power and justification he needs for turning the country into a fascist state for the betterment and international equalization of the country as a whole. 3. What is the nature of Totalitarianism? Totalitarianism, although seen most clearly in the Bolshevik Revolution, has its root in the history of nineteenth-century Europe and the French Revolution. It arose as a response to the need of rapid social, economic and political change.
Totalitarianism has as central attributes a command economy stressing rapid industrial growth regardless of the material and human costs; Militarized, secret police state capriciously extending terror to its citizens for purposes of keeping the ruling group in power and to motivate production; Collectivized agriculture to ensure political control and to control production;
Control of cultural/intellectual/political life; Creation of a mass political movement that does not participate in the making of decisions but participates in the carrying out of those decisions; substation of social motivations in place of private self-interest and profit.
4. How does ideology matter? Ideology mattered a great deal in the 19th century Russian revolutionary movement. In the 19th century, there were a group of philosophers called Idealist who held a single belief above all others. That belief was in the power of the idea, and specifically, that ideas are actually more real than everyday existence because without ideas, everyday existence would not be at all what it is.
For these philosophers, idealism meant recognizing the power of our minds in both being able to develop and respond to ideas and to implement those ideas and see them come to fruition in the concrete world. Specifically to the case of the Soviet Union, the final collapse of that country could be seen as the result of an inability themselves about the power of Stalinism/Leninism to create a better future.
After having held on to this ideology since it infancy and then seeing many of its self-prescribed goals unable to come to fruition, people began losing faith in the ideal of a Communist Soviet Union and this laid the ground work for the gradual unraveling of both the ideology as it was first expressed, and Soviet society as a whole.