Male and Female Reproductive Disorder Essay

Published: 2020-02-05 14:02:07
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Amenorrhoea (BE), amenorrhea (AmE), or amenorrh? a, is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. Physiological states of amenorrhoea are seen during pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding), the latter also forming the basis of a form of contraception known as the lactational amenorrhoea method. Outside of the reproductive years there is absence of menses during childhood and after menopause. Cause Hypothalamic Women who go through significant weight loss, dieting, or perform onsiderable amounts of exercise on a regular basis are at risk of developing hypothalamic (or athletic) amenorrhoea.

It was thought for many years that low body fat levels and exercise related chemicals (such as beta endorphins and catecholamines) disrupt the interplay of the sex hormones estrogeni and progesterone. However, recent studies have shown that there are no differences in the body composition, or hormonal levels in amenorrhoeic athletes as compared to regularly cycling athletes. Instead, amenorrhoea has been shown to be directly attributable to a low energy availability.

Many women who diet or who exercise at a high level do not take in enough calories to expend on their exercise as well as to maintain their normal menstrual cycles. [6] A second serious risk factor of amenorrhoea is severe bone loss sometimes resulting in osteoporosis and osteopenia. It is the third component of an increasingly common disease known as female athlete triad syndrome. The other two components of this syndrome are osteoporosis and disordered eating. Awareness and intervention can usually prevent this occurrence in most female athletes.

Many doctors simply prescribe the combined oral contraceptive pill to women with hypothalamic amenorrhoea, and these women continue in their patterns of under-eating and over-exercising. Often, they do not realize that they have a problem until they are trying to conceive, when their amenorrhoea leads them to seek the treatment of a reproductive endocrinologist. Drug-induced Certain medications, particularly contraceptive medications, can induce amenorrhoea in a healthy woman. The lack of menstruation usually begins shortly after beginning the medication and can take up to a year to resume after stopping a medication.

Hormonal contraceptives that contain only progestogen like the oral contraceptive i, and especially higher-dose formulations like the injectable i Provera commonly induce this side-effect. Extended cycle use of combined hormonal contraceptives also allow suppression of menstruation. The use of opiates (such as heroin) on a regular basis has also been known to cause amenorrhoea in longer term users. Treatments Treatments vary based on the underlying condition. Key issues are problems of surgical correction if appropriate and oestrogen therapy if oestrogen levels are low.

For those who do not plan to have biological children, treatment may be unnecessary if the underlying cause of the amenorrhoea is not threatening to their health. Unless receiving eggs from an egg donor or in vitro fertilization, a woman is unable to conceive while she is amenorrhoeici. On the other hand, athletic and drug-induced amenorrhoea has no effect on long term fertility as long as menstruation can recommence. The best way to treat athletic amenorrhoea is to decrease the amount and intensity of exercise.

Similarly, to treat drug-induced amenorrhoea, stopping the medication on the advice of a doctor is a usual course of action. Female Reproductive System: Amenorrhea, a Menstrual Problem By Stacy Lloyd Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation, meaning one or more missed menstrual periods. The Mayo Clinic defines it as when women have missed at least three periods in a row or when girls havent begun menstruation by the age of 16. According to the University i Maryland Medical Center (UMMC), there are two types of amenorrhea: primary and secondary.

When a girl reaches age 16 and has not had a period, she may have primary amenorrhea. When a woman who has been having periods misses three in a row, she is considered to have secondary amenorrhea. Secondary amenorrhea is more common than primary amenorrhea. The most common cause of amenorrhea is pregnancy. Other causes include problems with the reproductive organs or with the glands that help regulate hormone levels. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) say being born with poorly formed genital or pelvic organs (missing uterus or vagina, vaginal septum, cervical stenosis, or imperforate hymen) can lead to primary amenorrhea.

UMMC goes on to say secondary amenorrhea can be caused by pregnancy or breast-feeding, some types of birth control, certain types of medication (such as corticosteroids) or hormone imbalance. It may also be caused by low body weight, too much exercise, i problems, pituitary i, stress, and premature menopause. The Mayo Clinic reports there are factors that may increase the risk of amenorrhea. These include family history, eating disorders and athletic training. The absence of menstruation is one symptom of amenorrhea.

UMMC says symptoms of primary amenorrhea may nclude headaches, abnormal blood pressure, vision problems, acne and excessive hair growth. And symptoms of secondary amenorrhea may include nausea, swollen breasts, headaches, vision problems, being very thirsty, an enlarged thyroid gland and darkening skin. Treatments for amenorrhea include hormone therapy, medication and surgery. eMedicineHealth says hormone replacement therapy, consisting of an estrogen and a progestin, can be a treatment for women with estrogen deficiency because ovarian function cannot be restored.

In some cases, oral contraceptives may be used to restart the menstrual cycle and provide estrogen replacement to women with amenorrhea. The Mayo Clinic says amenorrhea caused by thyroid or pituitary disorders may be treated with medications. Primary amenorrhea caused by defects and problems with sex organs may require medication as well as surgery. NIH adds if the amenorrhea is due to low weight because of anorexia or too much exercise, periods will often begin when the weight returns to normal or the exercise level is decreased.

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