What are the neurological bases of Parkinsons and Huntingtons disease?
The motor system of the human anatomy is mainly rooted in the interaction of the nervous and muscular system wherein the interaction between the organs involved in the two enables the human body to move and react towards its environment. Basically, the motor system is organized between these two systems wherein the control process is centralized on the brain while the enactment of the movement is done in the muscle involved. In the brain, the motor control for voluntary movements is produced in the pyramidal system, which consists of two long neuron systems. These two systems are the upper motor neurons located in the primary motor cortex and the lower motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. Another important system in the brain is the extrapyramidal motor system located in the midbrain.
This system is responsible for dampening erratic motions, maintaining muscle tone and truncal ability. Another important region is the vestibular system, which is synaptically linked to the extrapyramidal system. This system controls the balance of the general body system and while doing movement. In addition is the cerebellum, which controls the muscle activity, tone, and equilibrium. In each of these systems in the brain, significant motor processes are produced and relayed into each region thus, producing the effective and logical reaction and movement of the human anatomy towards his or her environment.
Relevant to the healthy motor system of the human body is the condition of the different regions and systems involved in the processing of the motor movement impulses. In this aspect, the common diseases relative to body movement impairment are based on their neurological damage in the brain. The Parkinsons disease in particular, which is a movement disorder, affects the basal ganglia region in the brain resulting to deterioration of relay of motor impulses. These influences in the significant brain regions manifest in conditions of muscle rigidity, slowing to loss of physical movement in extreme cases, tremor, and others, which are the characteristic of Parkinsons disease.
The Huntingtons disease is also a degenerative condition characterized by abnormal body movements and lack of coordination. This condition is rooted on the expansion of the altered form of Htt protein called mutant Huntingtin which results to cell death in most critical regions in the brain. These cellular deaths results to the reduction of impulse relay in the brain and the processing ability of the motor regions. This abnormal cellular death in the brain region affects the physical and cognitive ability of the human body characterized by the disease. In general, the degenerative health conditions affecting the body movement are mainly rooted on the abnormal development in the critical brain regions directly related to the motor system.
Binder, M. D. (1999). Peripheral and Spinal Mechanisms in the Neural Control of Movement (Progress in Brain Research). Elsevier Science Publication. 1st Edition. ISBN-10: 0444502882.