What is prejudice? set of learned beliefs and values that lead a person to be biased against other members of other groups. -prejudices are convenient(bequem,brauchbar,passend) and inaccurate. ”-> people are not seen as individuals, biased people label other people to special groups -prejudice is mostly based on inaccurate information about people Prejudice originates from three common parts(these parts make up a prejudiced belief):
1. Generalisations -a very broad , simple statement about a group of people -here is perhaps an appropriate point to provide an example:All catholics or when the word they figures strongly -key words for generalisations are all and they ”>generalisations are also very inaccurate , because we are not justified in saying that all members of these group or race share the same characteristic features. G. are unfair descriptions of people and they are mostly based on very incomplete information. Having met one member from a different group with an extraordinary behaviour ,we often assume that all mebers of this group show this same extraordinary behaviour. 2. Stereotyping.
-exaggerated,often negative image of a particular group of people -a stereotyp often contains a grain of truth , but this grain of truth is combined with an exaggerated and undue image of this group. Ethnocentricity -there are two types of prejudices: 1. prejudice against all outsiders>your group is the only right and proper,all other groups are excludud,other groups are portrayed as being strange and inferior. 2. prejudice against specific groups”-> you are able to cope with some other groups,but you disapprove a special group of their religion>thats why you have a prejudice against this particular group.
But this kind of prejudice does not express that your religion is the best and that all other religions are worser than your own one. You are only biased against this particular religion. ”->prejudice against all other groups is called ethnocentricity Prejudice and discrimination Discrimination: -Speaking of Discrimination against a special group we mean the combination of prejudice with actions In this sense the word discriminating means that we are treating a group in a negative way. -the effect of people are discriminated against:loss in terms of money ,housing,education -the forms of Discrimination:
1. verbal abuse(anti-locution)”>through specific terms”>undermines their confidence-feeling of I am not desired in this society 2. Discrimination in jobs”>Refusal of jobs to a group>disadvantage in terms of jobs,income,personal decline. 3. Attack on property>destruction of cars>Expulsion because there is a lack of physical security 4. Physical attack”->Assaults on group members;stabs;deaths”>further lack of security;anger;frustration;formation of self-defence groups 5. Genocide”>mass murder of all”>extermination of whole families and cultural groups.
Racial prejudice or racism -always aimed at special groups -racism bases on the belief that one group(identified by their physical appearance,the skin colour) is naturally superior to other groups”->the superior group therefore holds the view that other groups get inferior opportunities and treatment,the belief in superiority is only the medium or justification for repressing other groups. -racism:hostility of any group towards other groups on the basis of perceived physical features. Why do we have prejudices? several reasons: 1. the warped personality.
-children brought up in a tense and repressive family”-inclination towards own authoritarian attitudes -individuals resentment about his or her childhood finds an outlet in hostility towards minorities -As to Adorno the prejudice springs from harsh childhoods and defective personalities 2. Scapegoating -frustration-aggression theory combined with the use of the idea of scapegoat= The own failure of people(such as financial security,good job,status symbol) evokes frustration. The people are not acquainted with the real cause of their failure.
Their frustration develops into aggression. Frequently,as a result the people search for weaker groups to lay the blame on them. This groups are guilty of an individuals failure and frustration >these people taking blame for an failure of other people are described or represented by scapegoats. Conformity -friends ,family your whole environment will induce you to share their views. They prevail upon you to be prejudiced against a special group. -The group pressure will cause you to agree with the group you are member of.