Nowadays, when tourists interact with indigenous cultures it is seen to be restricted to a master/servant encounter and sometimes is seen as an unoriginal representation of these people? s long-established and cultural lifestyles (Hinch & Butler, 1996). Hinch & Butler (1996) go on to say that factors within the external environment may have particularly strong influences upon the outcome of indigenous tourism. These influences which they mentioned included the economy, culture, physical environment, socialdemographics and politics (Hinch & Butler, 1996, page 12).
The economic considerations to take into account are very important for tourism the development of the economy through the tourism industry has actually been implemented as an approach to promoting economic independence for indigenous people (Hinch & Butler, 1996). It is known that for over the past two decades tourism impacts have been defined under three main headings economic, environmental and socio-cultural. Within the context of tourism, this report will deal with indigenous people through issues they come to deal with during their everyday lives.
From positive impacts which can come in the form of monetary benefits for them through tourism activities and an increased sense of pride for their culture, to more pressing issues, which include exploitation of their traditional knowledge and detrimental effects on their homelands by tourism. Most importantly and of utmost significance in our world today is the manipulation of indigenous people?
Rights as inhabitants and I felt a strong need to discuss particular topics which are very relevant today in society and which pose great problems for the future of indigenous people. I separated the topics under 3 classic terms economic, environmental and socio-cultural. Firstly, I will talk about tourisms economic impact on indigenous people, where I based my research on three short case study examples of tourism and indigenous communities from Mexico, Southern Belize and Namibia. 1 6/12/2011 BA (Hons) Tourism Marketing Year 3 2.
0 ECONOMIC ISSUES In many developing, or so-called third world countries, the tourism industry has become an economic activity one that impinges upon social, economic, cultural and environmental structures (Amador-Greathouse, 2005, p709). The tourism industry, in some form or another, brings about both positive and negative economic impacts for a multitude of people. Particularly in rural areas, the diversification which is created by tourism helps communities that are perhaps dependent on only one industry and in turn, they can create additional income through working in tourism (Kreag, 2001).
2. 1 Importance of the Economy for Indigenous People The main strength that impels the tourism industry is income and literally all of the written matter which deals with these economic impacts looks at foreign income and also the generation of jobs (Bauer, 2008). An example by Hundt, A. (1996) in Jamaica showed that tourism development in the area actually did reap some rewards in the form of increased wealth and an improvement in the position of people?
s health, but it also recognized that the money which was generated from tourism was not utilised in the appropriate way and did not improve the health of the people who needed it more than others. On the other hand, Manley (1974) says, when speaking of tourism in Jamaica, that: Jamaica cannot afford to go without tourism. No industry grows as quickly in todays world, nor is as capable of rapid local expansion (page 101). He went on to say that tourism is one of the most labour intensive industries left to the modern world and that it has a very agreeable multiplier effect when planned successfully (Manley, 1974).
According to the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody: National Report (1991) the potential for tourism development is strong in certain parts of Australia. In rural areas it is one of a few growth sections for the economy. However, tourism also brings its quandaries regarding indigenous people, in this case, of aboriginal descent.
There are two sides to the coin as at one side we have one of the very few ways that aboriginal people have in taking positive action in creating income for themselves through tourism, but tourism can also bring unwanted invasion of people?s community spirit and lifestyle and bringing with that little benefit to the people (Commonwealth of Australia, 1991). 2 6/12/2011 BA (Hons)
Tourism Marketing Year 3 Altman & Finlayson (2003) examined how employment as a form of economic income in the tourism industry (and tourism-related industries) needs people with good communicational attributes and people who can read and write, as well as embracing different cultures. This idea can be discouraging for some people of indigenous ethnic groups.
They went on to say how these issues aforementioned result in a boundary being set around employment opportunity for (in this case) Aboriginal employees and can restrict their involvement within the other service industries to un-skilled or semi-skilled work (Altman & Finlayson, 2003). Also mentioned was the fact that they (aborigines) prefer indirect economic participation and participation in hospitality and other tourism-related services also demands direct and intensive social interaction with tourists which many aboriginal people are unwilling or unable to undertake (Altman & Finlayson, 2003, p79). 2.
2 Cuetzalan, Mexico: a positive outcome In the case of Cuetzalan, a county in Mexico and country full of various indigenous ethnic groups, tourism has had a positive economic impact by generating a fresh and busy economic place it has brought forth a totally new understanding in people and has shown the way for a transformation in the likes of shared relations between different societies native to the area (Amador-Greathouse, 2005, pp709-10). One of the top reasons why tourists go to Mexico is to gain insight into the so-called undamaged and unspoiled way of life that Mexicans have in their native setting.
The tourists almost expect the indigenous people to put on a show for them in their own style of living. This is what the natives believe the tourist wants to experience in this way and the tourist then seeks out a new awareness of what this indigenous way of life really is (AmadorGreathouse, 2005, pp709-10). 3 6/12/2011 BA (Hons) Tourism Marketing Year 3 2. 3 Tourism in a Mayan Village, Southern Belize: Do it at Local Level One case study which sheds lights on the economic impact of tourism is the Maya Village Indigenous Experience in 1990.
This programme was a way in which the local Mayan villagers in Southern Belize could take part in a plan which would see them benefit economically from tourism to their area by doing it all at local level, but without compromising their way of life and culture (Steinberg, 1994). In the past the Mayan people had been seen as only useful for strenuous labour and agricultural work, without any economic hopes for them. Their view on tourism was that it would benefit them by concentrating on natural assets that they held.
The aim was to invite tourists to stay in the local people? s homes, with a fee and with the profits shared fairly between all (Steinberg, 1994). The main outcome was that now the Mayans believe that tourism was an intricate part in the wheel of economic development for their country and has given them hope that the economic benefits from tourism can help in moving their line of work solely from income through agriculture to other forms of income. Of course, there are negative impacts to be seen also.
The idea that tourism would bring immediate money to the people was quickly shattered; the native craftspeople left their jobs because craftwork was not being sold to tourists (due to small numbers arriving) and arguments started between members of different neighbouring villages as they all vied to be in the lead as regards the creation of new plans for tourism development (Steinberg, 1994). These impacts were perhaps inevitable, but the Mayans had a strong community spirit in the start-up phase and this did benefit them.
Next we move on to Caprivi in Namibia, where both positive and negatives impacts were experienced. 4 6/12/2011 BA (Hons) Tourism Marketing Year 3 2. 4 Caprivi, Namibia: Complement vs. Conflict Another economic impact of tourism is seen in the livelihoods of rural people around the world. It is a matter of sustaining their livelihoods through proper management of tourism in their area. One such case study details positive and negative economic impacts on a Namibian Community (Ashley, 2000).
Tourism in the native community of Caprivi is seen as a rural activity, one which is seen as an addition and not as a substitute. A key theme in the study showed that not only did tourism complement other activities, but it also conflicted with them. It strengthened individual household production and increased skills. Sometimes if people get jobs in tourism, they believe it will increase their income over a short space of time, but in fact this is not the reality of it and this is also to the detriment of their traditional way of life.
In Caprivi, Namibia, the natives believe that tourism is much easier to link in with their current livelihoods, e. g. agriculture, craft-making, etc¦ These particular tourism jobs are nearer to home, essentially meaning, that if they are farmers working on the land, they can remain farmers working on the land, as well as being involved in tourism (Ashley, 2000). As we have seen the complementative side of tourism for the Caprivians, we will now look to the other side. The conflicting side of these economic tourism impacts come in several ways.
1. Staple activities for income generation are through livestock husbandry and crop production. Tourists have now had the blame put on them for disturbing the wildlife, especially elephants and lions, which in turn, damage water points and kill livestock when the animals aggressively move closer to farms. 2. Grazing lands are lost for farmers whose main income is through livestock-keeping. All of the natural resources are reduced as so much land is set aside for wildlife and for the benefit of tourists.
Poorer people dependent on harvesting a variety of natural resources, such as plant medicines, food, weaving materials and items made for selling find that they have little access to these resources, therefore, directly affecting their income (Ashley and LaFranchi, 1997). 3. Time-conflicting: Agriculture and the income generated from this have been affected as community leaders or people who want to set up a tourism enterprise spend a great deal of time working on this.
For example, community leaders in Caprivi would need to spend on 5 6/12/2011 BA (Hons) Tourism Marketing Year 3 average about 360-720 days between themselves, park authorities and the public sector to establish a lodge in Mudumo National Park (Ashley and LaFranchi, 1997). What we see from the case studies above, and from the general outcome of economic activity from tourism in these areas, there have been both positives and negatives.
Perhaps, for the most part, they might always remain hand in hand to some extent, but hopefully in the future with better resources and tourism management in indigenous cultures, we will see a steady distance made between the two. From the economic section we will now move on to issues of environmental importance for indigenous people. 6 6/12/2011 BA (Hons) Tourism Marketing Year 3 3. 0 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES According to Ceballos-Lascurain (1996) the term ženvironment? refers to all the conditions, circumstances and influences surrounding, and affecting the development of an organism or group of organisms.
He speaks of ecotourism, coining it as environmentally-responsible travel to relatively un-disturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature that promotes conservation, has low visitor impact and provides for beneficially active socioeconomic involvement of local populations (Ceballos-Lascurain, 1996). Tourists may class themselves as žecotourists? , but this term does not represent who they are. A lot of the time, thinking we are ždoing good? for the environment, actual amounts to us being the producers of negative impacts for native people and the ecosystem.
This arises due to the problem of littering, the locals producing vast amounts of their resources, i. e. firewood for the creation of log cabins, as well as the de-population of some species of animal native to a particular area due to the visitor? s impacts (Ceballos-Lascurain, 1996). 3. 1 Ecotourism and Indigenous Lands Indigenous people, for some time now, have been present in the context of žecotourism? and its marketing campaigns. Even still, the native people have stayed ignorant to the real fact of what it? s all about.
This is happening without them understanding the full extent of what they are dealing with. Indigenous people are taking their own initiative on the matter and are contesting against the so-called industry žexperts? to make their own views and opinions heard on ecotourism (Johnston, 2006, pp. 3-4). At the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues which took place on the 15th May, 2003, many issues were brought to the fore among the issues were tourism and the severity of damage it had done to the land of indigenous people (United Nations, 2003b).
Ayitegau Kouevi, a member of the forum and also an indigenous expert stated that: all indigenous people shared a social and ecological relationship with their land (United Nations, 2003b). People worried regarding the way in which the land was used and the controlling of their resources (United Nations, 2003b). Tourism helps families in indigenous communities is true to some extent, but when it takes these people away from their traditional working of the land for food and crops to work in tourism jobs, then the outcomes become significant. Tourism increases the amount that these people will have to hand over to buy staple foods.
A cycle of these people being held in the poverty trap is seen, even when/if they decide to work in tourism (Johnston, 2006, page 8). 7 6/12/2011 BA (Hons) Tourism Marketing Year 3 3. 2 Ifugao Rice Terraces, Philippines: Under Threat A publication by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation) (2008a) was completed on a specific example of one such indigenous community bearing the brunt of these environmental impacts. The Ifugao are an indigenous people who hail from the Cordillera Mountains in Northern Luzon, Philippines.
Through their own way of life, they have been able to preserve and carry on their own traditions which are alive within their rituals, land and native craftworks. They are a people who have depended solely upon themselves to maintain their cultural heritage (Bulilan, 2007). As with other cases on environmental impacts of tourism, much the same is seen to be happening to the native people and their land. As tourism became more pronounced in this area of the Philippines in the early 1920? s, tourism development started to take place. From then until now, a lot of this development has severely impacted on the local land.
This area of Ifugao is well-known for its beautiful undulating rice terraces, for which it has become a world heritage site (UNESCO, 2008a). Even still, the dire planning of infrastructure in the area (due to the lack of or non-zoning policies) has led to many problems. Water resources are not up to liveable standards and the land is left with little strength as it is drained of all its natural reserves for infrastructure. A direct result of this is that staple diet foods, i. e. the sustainable rice crop is destroyed and this directly impacts upon the people of the area and their natural food source.
Rivers which held innumerable amounts of fish are now used as dumping grounds and the clean air is filled with harmful gases from transport vehicles which frequent the area (UNESCO, 2008a). The first tourist destination to arise in Ifugao was in Banaue (UNESCO, 2008a). With this development, tourism was said to have been the core cause of the deprivation that the environment was experiencing. More problems came in the form of water supply to the rice fields being exhausted as the influx of tourism increased the want for locally carved souvenirs made from wood.
In turn, this has increased the level of deforestation in Banaue, as well as in other towns. In what should have been an attractive and aesthetically inviting area, Banaue now has a stark contrast between garish concrete buildings and the native Ifugao homesteads (UNESCO, 2008a). 8 6/12/2011 BA (Hons) Tourism Marketing Year 3 3. 3 Sanitation Systems, Littering and Waste Disposal Another extremely important, but still very prominent environmental impact of tourism which can affect local communities is the area of sanitation systems, littering and waste disposal.
According to Ceballos-Lascurain (1996) waste can affect soil, vegetation, cultivation and even our air which we breathe. There is no žsafe? way of disposing of waste, but the only thing to inevitably stop it is to prevent its production in the first place. Of course, this would prove an immediate problem. In some national parks around the world visitors are given small plastic litter bags to dispose of waste in, but even still, a fundamental mistake was made in the bags being made of plastic, when they should be made of paper.
Human waste and littering is leading to the contamination of local people? s water systems, which in itself brings a whole host of health problems. In many areas of the world, indigenous people still fight for their right to the land they were raised upon. They want to be recognised as the owners of the land, the people who cultivate, nurture and maintain it. There needs to be more community involvement with local and indigenous people and the development of tourism.
If the locals are recognised as having a part to play in protecting their land and having it žused?in the right way, without it being exploited by tourism development, then perhaps a happier, more sustainable ending might be seen. 9 6/12/2011 BA (Hons) Tourism Marketing Year 3 3. 4 Nepal: Tourism Effects on the Environment and the Indigenous Sherpa Environment: Nepal is a well-known tourist destination these days. Many people go there for the purpose of trekking and hiking for days with the help of Sherpa? s, an ethnic group of devout Buddhists living in north-eastern Nepal (Reid, 2003, p54). Due to the large number of tourists who visit this area every year, tourism has taken its toll on the environment.
Pollution is visible on most routes, working on its own or as a combination with other underlying issues, such as: lack of hygiene, lack of proper sanitation systems (for locals, guides and Sherpa porters) and the lack of awareness people actually have about the environment (Pandey et al, 1995). Deforestation and pollution issues are still major causes for the environments deprivation, especially in the mountainous areas, but tourism has still become an opportunity for people here to make a decent living (Pandey et al, 1995). Indigenous Sherpas: Out of the 30 or so indigenous groups in Nepal, Sherpas are the most well-known.
In fact, Sherpas have a role within the tourism industry rivalled by few indigenous people around the world (Reid, 2003, p54). While less can be said for the environmental impacts of tourism, the tourism industry has been, as a whole, decent enough to the Sherpa people regarding income, better lifestyles and opportunities. When most Sherpa families relied on herding their yaks and harvesting their potatoes, they turned away from the advances of modernization, but now the Sherpa? s are tied to tourism and its development through a very strong hold (Reid, 2003, p55).
Ang Rita Sherpa, a graduate of the Khumjung school who now leads the Edmund Hillary foundation in Kathmandu defined three advancements in history which helped the lives of the Sherpa to become what it is today the incoming British tourists of the 19th century brought with them potato plants which was recognised as a new staple crop, the introduction of iodine in the 20th century meant that public health was improved considerably and finally, the westerners who came and saw the mountains and longed to climb them paved the way for the foundation of a tourism economy.
This economy has given more stability than the Sherpa? s agricultural or trading activities ever gave (Reid, 2003, p57). The Sherpas are still a strong people, rooted in their history and culture. Through tourism, some of their culture has given way to modernisation and their land has been negatively impacted upon by tourism, but for the most part, they remain true to their way of life. So much so, that the whole idea of building roads through these tourist mountain passes seems 10 6/12/2011.
BA (Hons) Tourism Marketing Year 3 senseless and environmentally wrong to them. They believe having no roads is an essential element of the Sherpa condition. The rimpoche, an important Buddhist lama who lives on Mt. Tempoche in Nepal, said that there will never be a road not in my life-time, not in our childrens lifetime. We are Sherpas. We walk (Reid, 2003, p71). As we can see, the Sherpas of Nepal are advancing slowly with tourism, but still have a grasp on their traditional ways.
Tourism has most definitely brought new opportunities to them so far, but it is the way in which they manage the incoming tourists to their destination which will help in protecting their indigenous culture. 3. 5 Traditional Knowledge: Medicinal Plant Misuse through Bio-Piracy Bio-piracy, according to the ETC Group (Action Group on Erosion, Technological and Conservation, 2005) is the appropriation of the knowledge and genetic resources of farming and indigenous communities by individuals or institutions who seek exclusive monopoly control (patents or intellectual property) over these resources and knowledge.
According to the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC, 2004) the market for herbal remedies in North America and Europe has risen by 10% every year for the past decade, research indicates. It is now thought to be worth at least ? 11bn. There is no doubt that this trade is so huge because companies want to market these remedies in a consumer marketplace. They are not taking into consideration the environmental effects it has on the land and the effect it has on the local people. According to Malani (2003) the importance of traditional knowledge to indigenous people is enormous.
Local people around the world rely on this knowledge, handed down for generations, to advance through their daily lives and through their healing in times of sickness. Worryingly, due to the increase of value in this traditional knowledge, many organisations have essentially thrown themselves on the bandwagon to profit from this knowledge (Malani, 2003). The awful truth is that whereas indigenous people see these medicinal plants as having an important therapeutic value, the only žvalue? companies? associate with using this sacred knowledge is commercial-based (Malani, 2003).
Some communities are still somewhat oblivious to bio-piracy. In a remote village in Kenya, the Maasai have introduced an interactive exhibit of plants which shows tourists what particular plants/shrubs they use for curing illnesses and how they use them. The plants are 11 6/12/2011 BA (Hons) Tourism Marketing Year 3 labelled by name and are each presented on a coloured stone tablet (Johnston, 2006, p103). Visitors are not allowed pick the shrubs, but are shown their uses which might satisfy them enough and deter them from taking a sprig of one home with them.
A different approach was taken by the Nlaka? pamux people of Canada who have set in stone their own rules and regulations when it comes to disclosure of their traditional knowledge. They have created their own line of herbal soaps for tourists under the name žSiska Traditions?. These soaps come with an information pamphlet with describes the basic medicinal properties which they hold, and nothing more. A simple introduction is all that is needed to ensure, for now, protection of their indigenous knowledge (Johnston, 2006, p103).
The practice of bio-piracy is still widespread around the globe and is drying out the land of its natural herbal remedies. The utilization of indigenous people? s knowledge of medicinal plants and the exploitation of their lands for this purpose is still a major issue. 12 6/12/2011 BA (Hons) Tourism Marketing Year 3 4. 0 SOCIO-CULTURAL ISSUES Sofield (1991) (cited in Ramchander, 2004, p4) described socio-cultural impacts of tourism as the sum total of all the social and cultural influences that come to bear upon the host society as a result of tourism contact.
Many studies have been done which deal with the local people? s feelings and attitudes towards tourism and impacts of tourism to their area. According to Swarbrooke (1999) the socio-cultural impacts of tourism are sometimes invisible and intangible and the most worrying as aspect of these impacts are that they are largely irreversible when they have been done. Normally, the effects of these impacts lie on the host community. The answer lies in the relationships which the tourist and the host community create with one another (Swarbrooke, 1999).
Increasingly in the last number of years, tourists have been travelling to destinations with have an inclination towards travel for a varied product offering they now travel for historical, archaeological and traditional purposes, as well as for the atmosphere they get from being in a particular place (Besculides et al, 2002). Cultural tourism, in general, sees a want in the tourist to establish communication with the host culture and with their environment. Tourists now have a curiosity to understand the native? s behaviours, traditions and cultural identity (Besculides et al, 2002).
Kreag (2001) identified several positive and negative socio-cultural impacts of tourism which can have profound effects on indigenous people. They ranged from improving the quality of life of the host community and promoting cultural exchange, to drinking, alcoholism and gambling, displacement of residents and an unwanted lifestyle change. As we can see, impacts of tourism to a community can either be an asset to that community or can be to their detriment. Relevant and ongoing socio-cultural issues will now be discussed further. 13 6/12/2011 BA (Hons) Tourism Marketing Year 3 4.
1 Aiming to Please and Relative Deprivation Acculturation: Sometimes host communities want to please the tourist and sometimes they can adopt tourist behaviour. This is known as acculturation. According to the International Organisation for Migration (IOM, 2004) acculturation can be defined as the progressive adoption of elements of a foreign culture (ideas, words, values, norms, behaviour, institutions) by persons, groups or classes of a given culture and this partial or total adaptation is caused by contacts and interactions between different cultures through migration and trade relations.
This can be detrimental to the host community they slowly lose their own way of life by being influenced by the tourist. Relative Deprivation: It seems that the impact tourists have on a particular area may actually affect the native people? s feelings about themselves and this, in turn, can cause bitterness toward the visiting influx of tourists to their homeland. (Runciman, 1966), cited in (Walker and Smith, 2002) explained that relative deprivation deals with the idea of people comparing their own lives with that of the other individuals or other social groups.
Depending on what type of person they compare themselves with; this will determine the level of resentment which they will inevitably feel. An interaction which takes place between both cultures (tourist and host) can provide new opportunities, but could also suppress independence, as well as forcing a community to adopt a different ethical behaviour, one which they are not used to. This could come in a positive way, e. g. improved understanding between males and females (as many countries think differently about this aspect of social life) or by an increased use of drugs, perhaps (Kreag, 2001).
This can create a whole host of other problems, such as an increase in violence in the area. 14 6/12/2011 BA (Hons) Tourism Marketing Year 3 4. 2 Traditional Ceremonies and the Tourist Gaze Traditional ceremonies native to specific tribes or groups of indigenous people may be rejuvenated by incoming tourist interests in culture, but these traditional ceremonies may also be lost (Kreag, 2001). Many see culture as a product or service when they travel. It? s as if it? s part of the whole experience and they demand to have it.
According to Johnston (2006), whether a tour which tourists partake in whilst on holidays is nature-oriented or ethnicallyoriented, the local indigenous culture will be included in this whole žpackage? , a lot of the time without the native? s say-so or contribution. This is an unacceptable use of people? s culture for marketing tourism and is one of the negative impacts on indigenous people it is an ethical issue which has been brought up by indigenous people constantly. The Toraja people of Sulawesi, Indonesia, took the idea of a traditional ceremony shown to the outside world to the extreme, one might say.
Following the death of a high-status Toraja figure in December, 1991, a camera crew came, with consent from this man? s family, to film the funeral ceremony in full. The idea behind it was to capture an exotic Toraja funeral, complete with animal sacrifices and rituals being performed in front of the camera lens (Yamashita, 1994). The son of the deceased, a wealthy businessman who had made it big in his early life in the city of Ujung Padang, paid $10,000 as a žco-operation fee? to the production company. We are still taking into
account here that even though Sampe (son of the deceased) was well-off, the majority of the Toraja are peasants. Two things were happening in this situation 1. Sampe, the deceased? s son, was conscious that showcasing his father? s funeral would promote Toraja for tourism purposes. The Indonesian government was also getting on the bandwagon and had endorsed this behaviour by influencing ethnic culture so that it could then market the area to tourists from elsewhere. The second was that the tourists could photograph and record the ceremony, under the spell of the žtourist gaze?.
The žtourist gaze? , described by John Urry, is when Places are chosen to be gazed upon because there is anticipation, especially through daydreaming and fantasy, of intense pleasures, either on a different scale or involving different senses from those customarily encountered (Urry, 2002, p3). Other re-enforcers of this žtourist gaze? are seen through watching T. V. , reading magazines, etc¦ The local tradition of the Toraja became removed from the culture of these people and was turned into a commodity for the tourist to consume (Yamashita, 1994).
The Toraja of Sulawesi was one such case study whereby not only the tourists were taking full advantage of 15 6/12/2011 BA (Hons) Tourism Marketing Year 3 a traditional ceremony, but the local people too, to some extent, for the beneficial outcome it would give them regarding tourism to the area. Needless to say, these cultural impacts are having a profound effect on indigenous people worldwide and some have come to reject tourism altogether. The American Indian Movement (1984) stated its warning many times We condemn those who seek to profit from Indian Spirituality¦